14 of the most common and dangerous types of cancer
Miscellaneous / / December 19, 2019
Science classifies cancers depending on what or what organ they affect. In domestic medicine cancer - it just carcinoma, that is a malignant tumor of epithelial cells of internal organs.
Actually, the name of the disease itself came when the ancient sage Hippocrates, studying the causes of the death of some of its compatriot rassok the affected organ, and decided that the tumor discovered there reminds him of cancer (in Greek - karkinos). Later Roman physician Cornelius Celsus translated the term into Latin: cancer.
Other types of the disease, do not affect the epithelium, called differently: in the muscles, bones and connective tissue appears sarcoma, lymphoma affects the lymph and so on.
blood cancer, brain cancer - a common, but inaccurate, narrow-minded terms.
Types of malignant tumors if classify them according to the struck organs and tissues - several tens. But only 12 types of cancer up almost 70% of all cancers in Russia.
Fortunately, the most common does not mean the most deadly. Let's talk about the first and on the second, focusing on three parameters:
How many people It is registered Oncology Center in Russia.
How often one or the other type of cancer causes of death.
What are the risks of dying from a specific disease for a certain period of time, eg a year. This figure is called mortality.
- It consists on the account: 692 297 people
- Died in the year: 22 098 people
- Mortality: 3,0%
Seals are common in the chest, caused by a variety of factors, including tumors. In most cases the tumors appearing in the lobules of the breast (cells responsible for formation of the milk) and ducts connecting the segments of the teats.
Therefore, doctors recommend that women regularly self-examination, breast probing fingers. Any seal - a signal that it is necessary to consult a doctor-mammologist.
Mammary cells, like all others, the receptors are used to enter the desired chemical signals triggered cellular responses. How receptors behave, helps determine the type of breast cancer, and to find the most effective treatment.
Normal cells of the breast and some cancer cells contain receptors that are able to capture, to attract the cell estrogen and progesterone. Receiving hormonal feeding the tumor grows.
Those types of cancer, which are formed by such cells respond well to hormone therapy. Certain drugs block receptors taking estrogen and progesterone, the hormones cease to flow into the cells, the tumor stops growing.
Most cancers of the breast just like that.
Other receptors, sensing the protein HER2 (epidermal growth factor receptor), also stimulates development of cells. HER2-positive cancer subtype is rarer, but more aggressive than estrogen-dependent tumors. However, it can be affected by certain medications that block the protein HER2.
In oncology, the sensitivity - is a good indicator. The more sensitive neoplasm, the body will respond better to treatment.
Triple negative subtype
If the tumor has none of the above receptors, it is called a negative three times. This is the most rare of these kind of tumors. These tumors spread quickly and are difficult to treat. They are more common in women with a mutation in the BRCA1 gene suppresses the growth of cancer cells.
- It consists on the account: 531 981 people
- Died in the year: 5258 people
- Mortality: up to 3.7%
Melanoma is not the most common, but the most dangerous type of skin cancer. Malignant tumor in this case grows and spreads at high speed.
Other, non-melanoma cancers (basal and squamous) are much more common, but they are less dangerous, it is best to treat and generally have higher survival rates.
Pay particular attention to the need to treat birthmarks, unlike others, or to change their shape.
These symptoms should cause you to consult with your doctor (dermatologist or oncologist):
- Asymmetry (one half mole does not match in size the other);
- jagged edges (rough, blurred, jagged);
- color is not like the others, with splashes of yellow, brown or black in a particular mole;
- diameter greater than 6 mm;
- any resizing, color, shape.
Superficially spreading melanoma
The most common form of melanoma (70% of cases). Looks like a flat or slightly convex skin with fuzzy irregular borders, change colors. It may appear at the site of moles.
Similar to the previous view and is formed close to the surface of the skin, often - of pigmentation spots. Common in older people and those who spends much time in the sun.
It appears as a black or brown spot under the nails, on the soles, palms.
Very aggressive form. By the time of identification, usually the cancer has already penetrated deep into the surrounding tissue. This process is called invasion.
- It consists on the account: 238 212 people
- Died in the year: 12 565 people
- Mortality: 5%
Timely diagnosis of prostate cancer can save lives. But early detection raises a difficult question: what is worse - the disease or side effects of treatment?
The fact is that many prostate tumors develop very slowly over the years, and even decades, can not bring serious problems. But treatment sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, including impotence and incontinence.
Not to miss the development of this type of cancer, all men over 50 years is recommended to consult a doctor and start to examine the prostate annually. And if the next of kin have been detected cancer, regular screening is desirable to start from 45 years old.
More than 95% of all malignant tumors of the prostate gland - is adenocarcinoma, which are formed from epithelial gland (the root of "Adeno" is translated from the Greek and means "iron"). But within this category of tumors cells take different forms. WHO classification describes variants: of swollen cells, colloid, perstnevidnokletochnaya (shifted to the periphery of the nucleus, so that the cells resemble rings with stones). And that's not all kinds.
Oncologists use the Gleason classification, which is based on differentiation (ie, degree of maturity) cells.
The less differentiated tumor cells, the more difficult form of cancer. Such tumors is assigned to the fifth graduation: they are dangerous and easily spread. Well-differentiated cells are the first gradation. They look almost as healthy.
small cell carcinoma
A rare and aggressive form of prostate cancer, which is difficult to detect. Unlike adenocarcinomas, it does not emit a signal protein marker - prostate specific antigen (PSA), which is typically found in a blood test. Tumor composed of small round cells, hence the name.
squamous cell carcinoma
This type of cancer of the prostate is not related to glandular tissue. Squamous cell carcinoma affects the fabric flat prostate epithelium, and as the PSA level is not resolved, then it is difficult to detect. Carcinoma is very aggressive, the average life expectancy after her identify - a little more than a year. Fortunately, she is rare: less than 1% of all cases of cancer of the prostate.
- It consists on the account: 177 755 people
- Died in the year: 8386 people
- Mortality: 5%
Almost all cases of cancer begin with the epithelium of the tubules in the nephrons - these are the basic cells of the kidney. Unfortunately, the early stages of the disease manifests itself practically. Detect a tumor can be except for a kidney ultrasound, if for some reason it is being administered.
As the cancer progresses, the symptoms appear. They usually include blood in the urine (which can then be present, then disappear) in the peritoneum of pain and induration in the renal region, which can be felt.
Kidney cancer has long been considered insensitive to chemotherapy, but the researchers are making more and more success in medical treatment.
Until recently, any kidney cancer classified as renal cell carcinoma. Now the disease is divided into sub-categories.
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma
The most common type, accounting for up to 85% cases. It is difficult to diagnose at an early stage.
Papillary renal cell carcinoma
This category, in turn, is divided into two subtypes. On the account for up to 5% of all cases of kidney cancer, the second - up to 10%. They are characterized by the size of the affected cells and the risk of metastasis in the former case, the cells are small, in the second - large and often lead to metastasize to other organs.
The first subtype is often hereditary nature. Mitogen (this gene that causes the appearance of a tumor) is transmitted from parents through sexual cages - gametocytes.
- It consists on the account: 167 585 people
- Died in the year: 1 117 people
- Mortality: 0,6%
Thyroid cancer responds well to treatment. Sometimes it is detected after the appearance of bumps on the neck (so it makes itself felt the increased thyroid), and sometimes - when the patient complains of shortness of swallowing, breathing or manifested hoarseness.
Many tumors grow so slowly that they even stopped recently considered malignant.
Most thyroid tumors do not respond to chemotherapy, but some new developments are encouraging. For example, kinase inhibitors help block the enzyme present in the cells formations. they also inhibit the growth of new blood vessels.
About 90% of cases of thyroid cancer - a highly differentiated tumors. They are divided into groups: papillary, follicular. More common in women and young people and have a favorable prognosis.
Sometimes it is caused by the inheritance of a mutation in a proto-oncogene RET. Patients with such a deviation is often recommended to remove the thyroid gland. Otherwise, the chances of successful treatment are greatly reduced.
The most aggressive form of thyroid carcinoma. These tumors grow quickly, respond poorly to treatment and actively metastasize to other organs.
- It consists on the account: 128 264 person
- Died in the year: 4946 people
- Mortality: 5,3%
Lymphoma - is any malignant process that begins in the lymphatic system. Most often suffer from lymph nodes - small oval organs that cleanse the body of waste such as viruses, bacteria and cancer cells. The nodes are connected vessels, which flows not blood and lymph. This fluid containing white blood cells - lymphocytes.
The lymphatic system collects fluid and decomposition products from the bloodstream. Lymphoma weaken the immune system, increases the risk of infections.
If you have increased lymph nodes, as soon as possible consult a physician. This does not necessarily lymphoma: as can be shown, and other diseases.
The lymphatic and circulatory systems are interconnected and permeate the entire body. This is the way that cancer uses to spread metastases.
The lymphatic system is difficult to find, so that lymphoma - complex diseases. There are a lot of categories and subcategories that differ significantly from each other.
It begins with lymphocytes. The most common form of classic Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is characterized by the appearance of giant cells. They are called Reed cells - Berezovsky - Sternberg. In 5% of cases of malignant cells - it histiocytes that look like popcorn.
With special substances doctors destroy DNA strand. Affected cells can not grow and die.
First chemotherapy for the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma, the FDA approved (by FDA Office of the US Food and Drug Administration), it was held in 1949. Nitroiprit used - analogue of the chemical agent mustard.
Today, other drugs used in chemotherapy. And successfully used: for statistics, Recover 9 out of every 10 people.
These forms are much more diverse. Many subgroups are more aggressive than Hodgkin's form. If the cells stick together, lymphoma called follicular (from the Latin folliculus - «bag»). Cancer cells may spread within the lymphatic tissues and evenly without grouping. In this case we say that the lymphoma develops in the diffuse type.
A promising new treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is based on the use of T-lymphocytes. It is the immune cells that are present in the blood. Geneticists are working on them in the laboratory, to put on the surface of specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). These CAR-T-lymphocytes can recognize proteins with which neoplastic cells are hidden from the immune system of the patient. This is a fundamental principle of immunotherapy in general: identify cancer to immune system could attack it.
- It consists on the account: 113 182 person
- Died in the year: 6094 human
- Mortality: 4,5%
Blood in the urine - a characteristic, and often the first symptom of bladder cancer. This is found in 8 of 10 cases, most often affects men.
Bladder cancer metastasis often spreads to other parts of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters and urethra.
And it happens even after a course of treatment.
About 95% of bladder cancer develops in cells lining the inside of the body. These cells - urothelium - constantly in contact with urine and, more importantly, with substances that it removes from the body, and it carcinogens. For example, chemical compounds contained in cigarette smoke or exhaust gases can thus provoke cancer development.
This type of cancer quickly adapts to the medication. It is therefore important to choose the new treatments. For example, one of them - the gene therapy - uses modified viruses, specifically acting on bladder tumors. As a result, the cancer cells are labeled hormone which feeds the immune system a sign: Behold the danger, this cell need to attack and destroy.
- It consists on the account: 86 129 people
- Died in the year: 7208 people
- Mortality: 6%
Most types of leukemia - the so-called right of blood cancer - starting in hematopoietic stem cells. These cells are responsible for blood formation and are located in the bone marrow.
In the early stages of leukemia may insinuate themselves symptoms associated with blood characteristics:
- The appearance of purple and red spots on the skin. Most often, these petechial hemorrhages (petechiae) are formed on the chest, back, arms. Motes are small, they are often mistaken for a rash or ignored.
- Unusual bleeding. For example, the smallest scratch can bleed for a long time.
If these symptoms are accompanied by other symptoms - decreased immunity, unexplained weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes, fatigue, weakness, a visit to a physician is required.
Leukemias are divided into acute and chronic. Acute disseminated quickly, chronic - no. Many types of chronic leukemia is well controlled, with their patients can live for years and decades.
Number of cancer, which can be called a chronic, only grows. Today, people living with cancer, more than ever in history.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
It affects lymphocytes - white blood cells that are responsible for fighting infections. This is one of the most common blood cancer diseases.
From recurrent CLL is difficult to get rid of: the tumor has become insensitive to the wire treatment, especially chemotherapy.
A new type of drug should slow the spread of the disease. It is aimed at identifying specific mutations that increase resistance to chemotherapy.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
This disease usually affects children. Standard treatments include chemotherapy, and the five-year survival of juvenile considerably higher than in adults (85% vs. 50%).
- It consists on the account: 19 837 people
- Died in the year: 18 020 people
- Mortality: 39,9%
Errors in the figures there: mortality from pancreatic cancer really is almost equal to the number of registered cases. But this is not talking so much about the aggressiveness of the disease (although it is not necessary to write-off), but a significant underestimation of primary patients. Ie cancer occurs without symptoms so that it is diagnosed or at the final stage, when the person is no longer possible to help or even posthumously.
Early diagnosis can simplify chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cyst or adenoma of the prostate. These diseases may be precursors of cancer.
Pancreatic cancer develops slow. Need about 10 years to the first degenerated cancer cells start to grow aggressively. But even after that required more 5-7 years in order to form a defined tumor.
As soon as the first metastasis, the process is accelerated: from now until the death of the patient takes place an average of 2.7 years. Chances of recovery or the suspension of the disease, unfortunately, small.
Physicians account for five forms of pancreatic cancer. Adenocarcinoma, emerging from duct epithelium - the most common of them. She there in 80-85% of cancer cases.
Acinar cell carcinoma
In this case, tumors develop from cells that produce digestive enzymes - acini.
Squamous cell carcinoma, and other
Squamous, and undifferentiated carcinoma and tsistadenokartsinoma much rarer. Like other forms of oncological pancreas, they have a poor prognosis.
- It consists on the account: 8590 people
- Died in the year: 9859 people
- Mortality: 38,4%
In this case deals with the diagnosis situation is still gloomy. Liver cancer is often determined either posthumously or already at the final stage, when the patient remains a matter of months or even weeks.
The reason for this is the same as that in pancreatic cancer. Liver cancers often develop virtually no symptoms.
This means that a person does not bother. And when the right side is a pain, and there are other signs, medicine already powerless.
Depending on the origin of malignant liver tumors are divided into two species.
Primary liver cancer
In this type include primarily pechonochnokletochny cancer, he - hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). So called malignant tumor that develops directly into liver cells - hepatocytes.
Less common are the other three types of disease:
- cholangiocarcinoma (cholangiocellular carcinoma) - tumors developing from intrahepatic biliary epithelium;
- gepatoholangiokartsinomy blended - they affect cells and liver and intrahepatic bile duct;
- fibrolamellar carcinoma.
These primary cancers called because onkoprotsessa begins in the liver itself, and does not come into it from other organs.
Metastatic liver cancer (secondary)
Such tumors penetrate the liver metastases - from other diseased organs. Secondary cancer is more common primary as liver metastases are able to put almost all organs.
- It consists on the account: 13 820 people
- Died in the year: 6903 human
- Mortality: 29,9%
Like all the most dangerous types of cancer, it does not have symptoms in the early stages. Malignancies, developing, narrow the lumen of the esophagus. It does not hurt, and almost imperceptibly. Thus, some difficulty swallowing - first dense and solid food, and then - semiliquid and later - even water and saliva.
This complexity is increasing gradually.
When a person is aware of what happened to him that something was wrong, and sent to the doctors, the cancer has already reached the 3-4th stage.
Unfortunately, almost incurable.
Depending on the place where the tumor appeared, isolated thoracic cancer (in the upper, middle and lower third), cervical and abdominal esophagus.
adenocarcinoma of the esophagus
This tumor develops from the inner cell membrane - the mucous layer of the esophagus and extends deeper into its wall. Adenocarcinoma is usually formed in the lower part of the esophagus near the stomach.
esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
This type of malignancy appears flat cells that line the esophagus lumen. Squamous cell carcinoma is most common in the upper and middle parts of the esophagus.
Other malignant primary tumors of the esophagus
Less common, but still occur: spindle cell carcinoma (poorly differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma), warty cancer (well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma embodiment) psevdosarkoma, mukoepidermoidnaya carcinoma, squamous glandular carcinoma, tsilindroma (glandulocystica carcinoma), primary ovsyanokletochnaya carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and primary carcinoid malignant melanoma.
esophagus metastatic cancer
Occasionally onkoprotsessa esophageal started from the outside - metastases from other organs. Most often it metastasized melanoma and breast cancer. In addition, the esophagus metastatic tumors of the head and neck, lung, stomach, liver, kidney, prostate, testis, bone.
Metastases typically distributed in the stroma of the connective tissue surrounding the esophagus, whereas the primary cancer of the esophagus grows mucosa or submucosa of the esophagus.
Lung cancer, trachea and bronchi
- It consists on the account: 144 010 people
- Died in the year: 50 176 people
- Mortality: 21,9%
In Russia, this type of cancer is particularly deadly. Every second patient who diagnosed the disease, dies throughout the year - it is called a one-year mortality.
This happens partly because of the complex structure of the lungs prevents timely detect and begin to treat the tumor. It is growing, giving metastasis in the blood stream, lymphatic system and other organs.
More than 80% of tumors are detected at this stage, when the patient is almost impossible to help.
Small cell (ovsyanokletochny) cancer
Small cell tumors are often formed in the bronchi (airway) and very aggressive: metastases appear quickly. This type of cancer is more common in smokers.
non small cell lung cancer
More than 90% of lung cancer - non-small cell neoplasms is, and about 40% of them - it is adenocarcinoma.
From 25 to 30% of non-small cell lung cancer is formed on the inner surface of the bronchi - is squamous cell carcinoma. The remaining tumors are combined into the category of "large-cell carcinoma."
- It consists on the account: 139 591 people
- Died in the year: 28 512 people
- Mortality: 14,4%
Stomach cancer is among the most widespread in the Russian (and the world) cancers. Malignant tumor cells develops from the inside of the gastric mucosa.
Depending on the location where the neoplasm, distinguish:
- cancer of the upper (proximal - closest to the esophagus) of the stomach;
- Cancer middle parts - body of the stomach;
- cancer of the lower (distal - closer to the duodenum) departments.
However, this classification is incomplete: the tumor can spread to two more division and seize the stomach completely.
Like other cancer, gastric cancer can grow deep into the body of the wall, as well as in other organs and tissues.
For example, distributed along the digestive tube in the esophagus, duodenum, the pancreas, liver... Tumor cells can be transferred to the current and the blood to distant organs - such as the lungs and bones.
The main problem lies in the fact that in the early, treatable stages of stomach cancer is often asymptomatic. Or masked by other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract - the same gastritis, pancreatitis, colitis or an ulcer. Tumor detected by chance: for example, when a patient is prescribed endoscopic examination of the strange sensations in her stomach.
But often, stomach cancer is detected only when it has already proved to be a distinct symptoms had metastasized and become incurable.
This type of cancer is formed in the glandular epithelium of the stomach. Adenocarcinoma can be:
- high-grade (high formed columnar epithelium);
- moderately differentiated (flatter Similar to the cell blocks);
- slightly differentiated (videoizmenonnye cells almost not rise above the surface of the epithelium).
In terms of cell shape perhaps the most aggressive kind of adenocarcinomas is perstnevidnokletochny stomach cancer.
squamous cell carcinoma
Most malorasprostranonny type of tumor. Occurs between the layers of the stomach glandular epithelium from squamous cells.
Glandular squamous cell carcinoma
This tumor combines elements of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
This is a rare but highly malignant form of cancer of the stomach. As a rule, it gives a lot of metastases.
This tumor cells which have different dimensions: can be both small and large (accordingly, it talking about small- or large-cancer), as well as polymorphic - in this case, has all the transitional forms cells.
- It consists on the account: 383 510 people
- Died in the year: 40 543 person
- Mortality: to 8.1%
In two sections of the intestine: small intestine and colon. The basic division of the latter is the so-called colon overall length of 1.5 meters. It was her cancer strikes more often.
Tumors affecting the intestines, can grow for a long time, up to 15-20 years. Sometimes tumors develop from polyps - are abnormal growths of tissue on mucous membranes. They have every third or even every second, but few people notice. Less than 10% of polyps degenerating into malignant tumors.
Cancer cells may infiltrate to the veins and arteries intestine and in lymphatic vessels (a process called LVI). Blood and lymph wash the whole body, so increases the risk of infection to other organs.
These tumors spread quickly and are characterized in that they have a lot of extracellular and intracellular mucus. The latter pushes the nucleus to the cell wall, because of what a cell becomes similar to a ring. Perstneobraznye types of cancer can be treated worse than others.
Tumors can be benign. This means that they are stable, surrounded by a cloth, from which formed and will not spread throughout the body. They are harmless.
Other tumors capture surrounding tissue. This malignancy.
Preinvasive cancer can be, that is at the early stages of development, when the tumor cells do not grow in the body, which are formed. At this stage, the treatment gives the best result. But over time, developing cancer, penetrates into the surrounding tissue and can metastasize to other organs.
Cancer cells can break and into veins and arteries, as well as in the vessels of the lymphatic system. Blood and lymph wash the whole body, so that the risk of infection of other organs increases.
According to the shape and appearance of the tumor cells can determine what treatment will be most effective.
Tumor cells were tested for sensitivity to treatment. The higher it is, the better the prognosis. Most of the cancer cells respond to DNA damage. It is the destruction of DNA strands and are engaged in preparations for chemotherapy.
Tumors often survive and accelerate its growth, because sprout blood vessels that nourish them. This process is called angiogenesis.
After treatment, it is important to determine how much of the affected cells left in the body. Modern research, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), reveal even traces of such cells.
cancer treatment methods are being actively developed. Test runs of cancer vaccine, which is made on the basis of the patient's cells. These cells are trained in laboratories to activate the immune system to fight the cancer, and then returned to the human body.
After the operation is applied adjuvant therapy - chemotherapy, which destroys the small metastases and mutations that underlie cancer.
Some types of cancer are inherited. You can identify the genes that increase the risk of developing the disease, and to prevent or detect the disease at an early stage. This procedure is called sequencing.
All cancers do not show themselves at first. Therefore, if you develop any unusual symptoms should consult a physician. And, of course, be regularly scheduled checkups.
Authors - Anastasia Pivovarova, Catherine Komissarov.
Designers - Oleg Selivanov, Catherine Denisenko.
Editor - Alina Mashkovtseva.
Corrector - Olga Sitnik.
Coder - Dmitry Naumov.