5 Myths of immunity, in which it is impossible to believe in the XXI century
Myth № 1. Vaccinations will not help
Vaccine introduction into the human body is carried out in order to ensure its protection against harmful pathogens. Vaccinations are a healthy person, to advance "arm" means the body fight infection.
After the body components fall into vaccines, is started by the same mechanism that operates at an infection occurs. Immune cells - B-lymphocytes - trigger antibody production, immune molecules that serve as markers foreign and help to quickly deliver the organism from pathogens.
When vaccination takes place not trigger actions to the active destruction of the pathogen, since vaccines can not cause disease. This kind of "rehearsal" actions of the immune system in response to entering a dangerous infectious agent.
After vaccinations and the synthesis of the necessary antibodies, the body is already "buys time": its B-lymphocytes "remember" what it needs to produce antibodies at a meeting with a specific pathogen. These antibodies allow the components of immunity successfully detect the threat and remove it from the body before they will develop the disease.
Licensed vaccines are thoroughly checked, and after becoming a permanent object of repeated market testing and reviews.
Vaccination does not give 100% guarantee that the vaccinated person does not get sick, but this procedure significantly reduces the probability of being infected with a dangerous pathogen.
According to WHO (World Health Organization), every year immunization can prevent two to three million deaths from diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and measlesAnd dangerous variola virus and did managed to win with the help of immunizations.
Myth № 2. Children should be kept sterile, because they have no immunity
In fact, the neonatal immune system is, but it develops gradually over several years, according to the genetic code embedded in the DNA Basha S., Surendran N., Pichichero M. Immune responses in neonates. // Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2014. Vol. 10, № 9. P. 1171–1184. . It is implemented as a child growing up.
While the fetus is in the womb, it protects maternal immunity. Gradually formed lymphoid organs: bone marrow, thymus, clusters of diffuse lymphoid tissue, lymph nodes, spleen. Furthermore, in the liver, spleen and bone marrow, fetal formed immune cells - lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils.
In the first three months after the birth of the baby to protect exclusively maternal antibodies Adkins B., Leclerc C., Marshall-Clarke S. Neonatal adaptive immunity comes of age. // Nat Rev Immunol. 2004. Vol. 4, № 7. P. 553–564. . Transfer lgG antibody type takes place in the last trimester pregnancy. Maternal antibody decay over time, and by 3-6 months, many of them cease to function.
baby skin, sensitive even to minor damage is covered by vernix vernix caseosa. This waxy mixture was allocated by the sebaceous glands. It contains antibacterial substances - lysozyme defensins psoriasin, antimicrobial fatty acids. They all make up an antimicrobial shield that protects the infant from a large variety of pathogenic microbes Levy O. Innate immunity of the newborn: basic mechanisms and clinical correlates. // Nat Rev Immunol. 2007. Vol. 7, № 5. P. 379–390. .
In addition, in the intestine of the newborn at birth already present Peyer's patches - clusters of T- and B-lymphocytes in the mucosa. After contact with germs, they provoke an immune response in the future help to adequately respond to the alien in the digestive tract Reboldi A., Cyster J. G. Peyer's patches: organizing B cell responses at the intestinal frontier. // Immunol Rev. 2016. Vol. 271, № 1. P. 230–245. .
The child from birth has a program of development of the immune system. In order to realize its maturation, the necessary contacts with the various antigens and time.
Of course, until the immune system is not fully grown in full, the children more than adults, are at risk of contracting a particular infection. However, the desire to create a "sterile conditions" for the child threatens the development of hypersensitivity reactions - allergies and autoimmune diseases.
There is a hypothesis about hygiene, according to which the development of such conditions triggered by lack of contact with the infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms - representatives of normal microflora and parasites in early childhood. The lack of such contacts lead to a violation of the establishment of immune tolerance - immunity to its own cells and molecules.
Immunity children who live in conditions close to the sterile, may be underdeveloped in the future.
Evolutionary man always got a certain level of stress on the immune system in the form of a number of pathogens. If the number of surrounding antigens falls, the body begins to attack particle and harmless compound. For example, pollen or food components may become a cause of development of the immune response Okada H., Kuhn C., Feillet H., Bach J-F. The 'hygiene hypothesis' for autoimmune and allergic diseases: an update. // ClinExp Immunol. 2010. Vol. 160, № 1. P. 1–9. .
It is believed that the immune system matures to 12-14 years when a young body begins to produce as much antibody as in an adult.
Myth № 3. Immunity reinforce Yogurt and multivitamin supplements
There are many recommendations in advertising and the media, which convince to buy yogurt with bacteria, multivitamin complexes, miracle immune stimulants, and much more. Unfortunately, the ideal and simple recipe is no prevention of infectious diseases.
Let's start with the yogurt. The commercials tell us that the immune system is dependent on the intestinal microflora, and yogurt with beneficial bacteria to improve the microflora - and thus the body's immunity.
Today we know that in the gut man live about a thousand species of bacteria that play an important role in the normal functioning of the body. The long co-evolution of bacteria and human body has led to occurrence of complex interactions with the components of immunity microbiome Hillman E. T., Lu H., Yao T., Nakatsu C. H. Microbial ecology along the gastrointestinal tract // Microbes Environ. 2017. Vol. 32, №4. P. 300–313. .
intestinal microflora is not only helps digestion and produces the vital B vitamins and vitamin K, which the is not able to synthesize our body, but also prevent the penetration of pathogens, while maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa and physically preventing their attachment to cells bowel.
But the fact that the bacteria from the outside, in particular - healthy yoghurt bacteria - are not able to stay long in the intestines.
This was confirmed by the American researcher Sherwood Gorbach, who studied strains of bacteria for over 20 years - he was not I managed to find lingering in the gut bacteria in any of dairy cultures of America, Europe and Asia. If some strains and survived the hydrochloric acid of the stomach, it is still disappeared after 1-2 days Jessica Snyder Sachs. "Germs are good and bad." M., AST: Corpus, 2014. - 496 c. .
Although today some probiotics and it has shown promising results in experiments, but so far scientists have not enough convincing scientific evidence of their benefits Sanders M. E., Guarner F., Guerrant R., Holt P. R., Quigley E. M., Sartor R. B., Sherman P. M., Mayer E. A. An update on the use and investigation of probiotics in health and disease // Gut. 2013. Vol. 62, №5. P. 787–796. .
The US Office of sanitary inspection by the Food and Drug Administration has not approved any probiotics for the prevention or treatment of any disease, including those associated with the immune system Degnan F. H. The US Food and Drug Administration and probiotics: regulatory categorization // Clin Infect Dis. 2008. Vol. 46, № 2: S. 133–136; discussion S. 144–151. .
Maybe then help multivitamin supplements? vitamins help the implementation of all the most important enzymatic reactions in the body. Total human body 13 needed for normal functioning of the vitamins: vitamin A, vitamins of group B (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12), C vitamins, D, E and K Bender D. A. Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 2003. 488 p. .
Vitamins A, C, D, E and B6 were observed as the major participants in the processes associated with immunity. When activation of their lack disrupted T and B-lymphocytes and largely produced proinflammatory signaling molecules, which in some cases may complicate the pathological processes Mora J. R., Iwata M., von Andrian U. H. Vitamin effects on the immune system: vitamins A and D take centre stage // Nat Rev Immunol. 2008. Vol. 8, № 9, P. 685–698. .
Unfortunately, the multivitamin complexes are mostly useless because the synthetic vitamin tablets digested worse or is not absorbed by our bodies.
Some components of additives - e.g., calcium and iron - are not assimilated together. In particular, fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K are often produced in the form of tablets which do not contain any lipids required for suction.
Doctors, nutritionists, scientists and experts from authoritative organizations such as WHO and the FDA (Food and Drug Administration), recommended good nutrition and get vitamins from food. In case of lack of vitamins, it is necessary to consult with your doctor and review the diet and composition of the products.
Attempts to compensate for supply of vitamins on their own, without consulting a doctor can be quite dangerous.
According to dozens of research, daily vitamins excessive use may increase the risk of various diseases Hamishehkar H., Ranjdoost F., Asgharian P., Mahmoodpoor A., Sanaie S. Vitamins, Are They Safe? // Adv Pharm Bull, 2016. Vol. 6, № 4. P. 467–477. .
Myth № 4. The brain is not immune
Brain, As well as some other tissues and organs - the cornea, testes, thyroid gland - called immunoprivelegirovannym body due to the fact that the major components of the immune system, it is isolated through the blood-brain barrier. This barrier protects including body tissue from contact with the blood, which contains cells and immune molecules.
Immune reactions in the brain occur differently than in the rest of the body. Since the brain is very sensitive to a variety of injuries, his weakened immune response, but it does not mean that it is not at all.
For example, the brain is "their" immune cells - the microglia - the brain is isolated macrophages that protect body tissue from infectious agents. During phagocytosis ( "eating") of infections microglia generates signals that cause inflammation in the individual brain sections Ribes S., Ebert S., Czesnik D., Regen T., Zeug A., Bukowski S., Mildner A., Eiffert H., Hanisch U.-K., Hammerschmidt S. Toll-like receptor prestimulation increases phagocytosis of Escherichia coli DH5alpha and Escherichia coli K1strains by murine microglial cells. // Infect Immun. 2009. Vol. 77. P. 557–564; Ribes S., Ebert S., Regen T., Agarwal A., Tauber S. C., Czesnik D., Spreer A., Bunkowski S., Eiffert H., Hanisch U.-K. Toll-like receptor stimulation enhances phagocytosis and intracellular killing of nonencapsulated and encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae by murine microglia. // Infect Immun. 2010. Vol. 78. P. 865–871. .
Previously it was believed that the presence of immune system cells, microglia in the brain has been limited. But in 2017 Dr. Daniel Reyh spent together with his research group a series of experiments using magnetic resonance imaging and identified lymphatic vessels in the meninges monkeys and humans Absinta M., Ha S.-K., Nair G., Sati P., Luciano N. J., Palisoc M., Louveau A., Zaghloul K. A., Pittaluga S., Kipnis J., Reich D. S. Human and nonhuman primate meninges harbor lymphatic vessels that can be visualized noninvasively by MRI. // eLife. 2017. Vol. 6. Article e29738. .
In addition to immune cells and lymph vessels, an important role in the normal functioning of the brain and the immune system play a molecule. Thus, the cytokine IFN-γ - signaling molecule that protects against viruses - is involved in the regulation of social behavior.
Scientists have revealed the relationship cytokine deficit of Virginia and the University of Massachusetts social disorders and neuronal connections, which have also been observed in animals immunocompromised. It was possible to eliminate the interferon when administered into the cerebrospinal fluid Filiano A. J., Xu Y., Tustison N. J., Marsh R. L., Baker W., Smirnov I., Overall C. C., Gadani S. P., Turner S. D., Weng Z., Peerzade S. N., Chen H., Lee K. S., Scott M. M., Beenhakker M. P., Litvak V., Kipnis J. // Nature. 2016. Vol. 535. P. 425–429 .
Myth № 5. If the immune system is working very actively, it is always good
Excessive immune activity can be dangerous for the body.
The immune system possesses the ability to destroy foreign objects, including infectious and deliver them to the body. But sometimes the immune system is the body's cells to take harmless for a potential pathogen. As a result of uncontrolled immune response may experience an allergic reaction or hypersensitivity reactions.
According to the classification proposed by the British immunologists Philip Gell and Robin Coombs back in 1963, there are four types of such reactions Gell P. G. H., Coombs R. R. A. The classification of allergic reactions underlying disease. // Clinical Aspects of Immunology. Blackwell Science. 1963. . The first three types of hypersensitivity reactions - is immediate type reactions, since the immune response develops within minutes after exposure to the allergen. The fourth type of reaction is characterized by a longer period of - from several hours to several days.
The material is prepared based on the book "How does the immune system," Catherine Umnyakovoy. People daily exposed to billions of microscopic organisms. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa confront us everywhere.
Fortunately, not all of them are a threat to our existence, but many can seriously harm your health. This book is widely and clearly explains how the immune system works, as well as the errors that prevent us from understanding what happens to the body when it is not healthy.
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