Which vaccinations should be done for adults
Health / / December 19, 2019
Why adults vaccinated against childhood diseases?
Childhood diseases commonly called measles, diphtheria, chicken pox and most ills, from which vaccinations. In fact, they are not for children - nothing changes with age.
Just all these diseases is easy to pick up. Before the start of mass vaccination of people infected, once faced with pathogens. It happened at an early age and then become ill or dying, or acquired active immunity that protects them. So it seemed that only the children are sick.
Now it is not necessary to risk their lives for the sake of immunity - there vaccinations. But if you do not make them or do a long time ago, you are at risk.
Currently, no one will prevent human terms about immunization: it is necessary to know the right time and revaccination age.
Olga Shirai, epidemiologist, head of the epidemiological department of St. Petersburg GBUZ "Elizabethan Hospital"
Many adults do not revaccination, but still do not get sick because of immunity. Someone he stayed after his illness, someone after vaccination (even if everyone had forgotten about it), the other protects the herd immunity - the epidemic is simply nowhere to roam, if the majority of vaccinated. Revaccination is necessary in order not to get sick and do not provoke epidemics.
How do you know what vaccinations do I do?
In theory, all vaccinations are recorded in the card or vaccination certificate, card and data roam with a man from the clinic to the clinic.
In practice, we have nothing. Even if you're whole life attached to a clinic, you have not changed residence, all these data can be easily lost. For everyone else, it is the quest "I remember - I do not remember." Most likely, you do not remember.
If so, that is a reference point for those born in Russia - National immunization schedule. If vaccination there is, perhaps, you have received it. Then you are likely to need a booster, because not all vaccinations are life. If vaccination is not in the national calendar, you need to do it anyway.
What tests will show that vaccinations have been?
If a person is vaccinated once, he has antibodies to the disease. Are proteins that attack a bacterium or a virus that has penetrated into the body. They are referred to as IgG. - type immunoglobulin G.
Spend a blood test for antibodies to viral hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, polio (in relation to the three types of the virus), measles, rubella, mumps, whooping cough. For this reaction is carried out with an appropriate PHA diagnosticum (diphtheria, tetanus, measles, mumps) or IFA (whooping cough, hepatitis, rubella).
Immunity to load, you need a certain titer - the number of these same antibodies. If the titer is small, it is necessary to be vaccinated. Indicators for all their vaccinations, will be discussed with the doctor alone.
But even if you have to be vaccinated against diseases to which already have immunity, nothing special happens - entered the vaccine agents will be destroyed.
Which vaccines can be vaccinated?
In vaccines, the rule "more modern, the better", because researchers are constantly working on improvements. New vaccines are well tolerated, are often protected from several diseases.
Even if you planted a kid older vaccines can safely make new booster - no conflict will not.
We have listed the vaccines that are approved for use in Russianational calendar of inoculations of the vaccine.. To learn more about them, you need to read the manual and learn the contraindications. Some vaccines do not occur in hospitals, and some just hard to find.
How to get vaccinated against hepatitis B?
Hepatitis In - a dangerous viral infection that is transmitted through blood and sexually. It affects the liver, on it there are no specific drug treatment. Disease can occur with heavy complications and even death. Hepatitis B die each year nearly 700 000 people in the worldWHO newsletter..
Vaccination is carried out for children and adults not previously vaccinated against hepatitis B, according to the scheme 0-1-6 (first dose - in the start of vaccination, a second dose - a month after the first dose and the third dose - 6 months from the beginning vaccination).
The main thing - to do three injections to no longer think about it. If you have started to vaccinate, but the scheme is not completed, then the immune system will be unstable and no one really did not say how much it will last.
vaccines: "Euvaks B", "Regevak B", "Engerix B", "Infanrix Hexa."
How to get vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis?
Children are given a vaccine that protects against three diseases at once. After 26 years it is necessary to pass revaccination at least two of them every 10 years.
- Diphtheria - a disease that affects the throat and bronchi to the extent that the person can not breathe. It runs hard, with a high temperature and visceral. Pathogen infections - diphtheria bacillus - toxic, so there are frequent complications. The disease is deadly.
- Tetanus affects the nervous system, they can become infected at any time, if the infection gets into the wound (such as a splinter). Because of tetanus convulsions, and in poor development of the disease people die because disabled nerves responsible for breathing.
- Whooping cough affects the respiratory system, different characteristic cough. It runs the harder than the younger patient.
Adults on the national calendar vaccinated only against diphtheria and tetanus (Td vaccine). Pertussis components in the vaccine is not included, as for adult disease is not as frightening as for a child. The whooping cough at any age there is no good, so please buy with pertussis vaccine to protect against all at once.
If vaccination is not carried out as a child, you need to do three injections: the first two doses of the vaccine are administered at intervals of one month, the third - a year after the second dose. Then revaccination is also carried out once every 10 years.
Even if you do something planted in the school, after 26 years, need a booster at least against diphtheria and tetanus.
The American Pediatric Association recommends2013 immunization schedule includes change in Tdap recommendations. vaccinated against whooping cough for pregnant women to pass on antibodies newborn.
vaccines: "Pentaxim", "Infanrix Penta", "Infanrix Hexa," "tetrakis", "Infanrix."
How to get vaccinated against measles, rubella, mumps?
From these diseases in children vaccinated at the same time too.
- Measles - vysokozaraznaya disease that is dangerous complications such as pneumonia or encephalitis.
- Rubella is especially dangerous for pregnant women because it affects the fetus.
- Mumps, aka pig is dangerous, because the disease often ends complications affected gland, kidneys, brain.
Vaccination if it was a long time ago, to be repeated at the age of 22-29 years (depending on the timing of the last booster), and then every 10 years.
Data can be found in the medical literature that immunity after vaccination against measles and mumps persists for 20-30 years. Therefore there is no need to enter a three-component vaccine every 10 years, and can only be vaccinated against rubella, post-vaccination protection where there is only 10 years old. However, this is a moot point. 10 years after vaccination against measles and mumps protection can also be weakened, it is recommended to use booster vaccine containing all three viruses.
Adults who are not ill with these infections in childhood and not to vaccinate, for the formation of immunity receive two doses of vaccine with an interval between administrations per month later a booster also once held in the 10 years old.
How to get vaccinated against chickenpox?
Vaccination against chickenpox was included in the national calendar recently, she performed as desired. Adult it can be done at any age, if as a child he did not had chickenpox or have not been vaccinated.
Studies have shown that immunity after vaccination persists for more than 30 years, so the program does not provide for revaccination (vaccination against chickenpox is done once in a lifetime).
Contrary to popular belief, chickenpox is not better recover. Firstly, in adults, the disease is heavier than children. Second, the virus that causes chicken pox, it remains in the body forever and can reappear as shingles depriving.
Women who have not had chickenpox and are planning a pregnancy, should also be vaccinated against this disease, so as the infection during pregnancy (especially in the early stages) can lead to defects in the fetus, and even miscarriage.
Vaccinated against chickenpox can be done for the prevention of the disease if there has been contact with the ill person. WHO believes this measure is effective if the vaccination carried out within 72 hours after contact with a sick person healthy.
How to get vaccinated against polio?
polio viruses terrible complications: one of the 200 gets ill with complications such as paralysis. Instilled necessary, if not immune, and you're going to a country where the disease is common.
Grafting is done in three stages. Better use of inactivated vaccine - one that is in the injections, it is much safer to drop into his mouth.
vaccines: "Pentaxim", "Imovaks Polio", "Polioriks" "tetrakis", "Infanrix Hexa."
How to get vaccinated against Hib?
Hib causes a severe form of meningitis, pneumonia, sometimes leading to sepsis. The infection responds poorly to antibiotics.
Among children vaccinated only those who are at risk for health. This also applies to adults: vaccinated elderly people in contact with patients, people with chronic diseases.
vaccines: "Act-HIB," "Hiberiks Pentaxim", "Infanrix Hexa."
How to get vaccinated against HPV?
Some types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are a danger to women's health, causing cancer of the cervix, genital warts and other diseases.
Vaccination is recommended for girls and women aged 9 to 26 years, preferably before the onset of sexual activity (because from the beginning it dramatically increases the risk of infection from a partner). Vaccination can be done later in life up to 45 years.
Men, too, can make the vaccine not to tease the virus that causes cancer (not only the cervix, but also other organs), and not to suffer from warts. Grafting is done in three steps according to the instructions.
vaccines: "Gardasil", "Cervarix".
How to get vaccinated against pneumococcus?
Adult vaccination is optional. Pneumococcal infection is usually attached to other diseases and is a complication. It causes meningitis, otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia.
Vaccination is recommended for people at increased risk of infection group, as well as those who have diseases caused by pneumococcus, occur most severely and cause complications:
- adults older than 65 years;
- people are often in contact with potential carriers of infection;
- employees of preschool and school institutions, boarding houses;
- those who have a chronic respiratory disease, liver, diabetes mellitus;
- people suffering from immune deficiencies;
- patients who have increased risk of meningitis (after traumatic brain injury, spinal neurosurgery).
vaccines: "Pneumo-23", "Prevenar 13."
How to get vaccinated against meningococcus?
Meningococcus causes meningitis, but it is special. It is always a rapid infection is potentially deadly. Each case of the disease - this is an emergency.
In Russia, the vaccination is carried out if there is an outbreak of the disease, as well as among those who are subject to military conscription, and those who go to Africa and Asia.
Current vaccines protect from several subtypes of the disease. A single vaccination in adulthood.
vaccines: "Menaktra", "Mentsevaks ACWY".
What other immunizations should be done?
In addition to these, there are still vaccinated on epidemic indications. They are made in a case where a outbreak or if the person in the work are often faced with rare diseases. This is a matter experts, but there are some vaccinations that should be done without waiting for epidemics.
- tick borne encephalitis. We have already mentioned, to whom, how and when to get vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis (Begin to address the issue in February, in time to do the full course and develop immunity before the wake mites).
- Flu. More information about the flu shot, we also have wrote. Read everything you want to know. Vaccination - the best protection against the flu. It should be grafted in mid-October to meet the epidemic head-on.
- Vaccinations for travelers. If you are going to a country where there are often outbreaks of infections, it is necessary before the trip to be vaccinated. Usually it is hepatitis A (it can be grafted, and just for prevention), yellow fever. It all depends on the country in which you decide to go.
What to do now?
To ensure that you do not get sick:
- Go to the clinic in the community and ask the therapist notes about what vaccines are in your map.
- Turn in assays for antibodies to the disease to which it is required.
- Ask whether there is a clinic in the vaccine, as well as their names.
- Find a private medical center, which has a license to conduct vaccination.
- Find out what pharmacies sell vaccines.
- Make up with your doctor vaccination schedule. Several vaccines can be administered simultaneously, it is not necessary to take breaks between different drugs. It all depends on the instructions for each specific vaccine.
- Get vaccinated for this schedule.
- Do not be ill.
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