Everything you wanted to know about proper nutrition
Health / / December 19, 2019
Edition of New York Magazine was great guide on nutrition, gathering advice of your doctor and author of cookbooks. We translated it and share with you.
A columnist for New York Magazine, the author of "Culinary matrix".
Director of Preventive Research Center at Yale University.
Surprisingly, many people have no idea how to eat. All other species on Earth are experiencing such difficulties. It must be our ancestors also knew that there is, as long as our brain is too big it's not complicated. And now we are the only species who doubts the "correctness" of the diet.
We are constantly confusing bloated headlines echo chamber and speculators who are happy to cash in on the fast-food and trendy diets. As a result, proper nutrition is given so hard, not because it is complex, but because it's hard for us to make a choice in his favor.
With this in mind, we have offered to friends, acquaintances and readers to ask anything about diet and nutrition. And the answer to these questions, based on the scientific consensus, without further ranting and references to the word "wellness". We wanted to dispel the myths and show that to eat well is easier than it seems. Here are our answers - carefully collected, studied deeply and completely exhaustive.
Vegan, vegetarian or omnivorous?
We do not know, because no studies on what diet to human "is the best." Most likely, it is generally impossible to verify.
So health is best such combination: lots of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds, and of thirst - plain water. You can include or may not include seafood, dairy, eggs, a little meat. The diet may be a low or high fat content.
What about any diets? For example, paleodieta change my life?
This paleodieta almost certainly good for you, because that's what it adapted our bodies. But here is what is it?
Well, the food in the Stone Age. Meat and fruit. And maybe eggs. And the bacon!
Paleodieta - not an excuse to eat bacon. And not a reason to abandon the whole grain. And not necessarily to eat eggs and even meat.
But what about the burgers and pepperoni? They are a part of the paleodietu?
In the Stone Age there was no burgers, no pepperoni. And bacon too.
Then what is?
Nutritionists believe in the Stone Age, our ancestors (who, incidentally, were gatherers) ate a diverse, ever-changing vegetarian food. From it every day they received about 100 grams of fiber. Today, we eat on average about 15 grams of fiber a day.
It is also believed that they ate large amounts of insects. Few modern adepts paleodiety We are willing to try. Even then, probably, you are eating cereal. There is evidence that they ate about 100 000 years ago. And, of course, the meat of wild animals. Domesticated in the Stone Age did not, except maybe a wolf.
In any case, power supply, which has adapted our bodies is almost certainly much healthier than the modern diet. There is plenty of evidence that a diet made up of minimally processed foods, plant-based diet and help get rid of some diseases.
Means vegetable food - is good. Maybe for a while to go on juice? Or juice cleansing dangerous?
Usually not, it all depends on your health. But the benefits of these juices do not.
Do not they cleanse the body?
This promise on the package - but from what they should be cleaned?
The organism itself daily toxins. This is the main task of the liver and the kidneys, and they do an excellent job. Intestine, spleen and immune system are also involved. Therefore, take care well of the liver, kidneys, intestines and immunity. It is much more useful than some juice.
How to take care of them? Of course, take care of yourself: eat well, do not smoke, exercise, sleep, stress limit.
Each all the time talking about stimulating ketosis. What it is?
When ketogenic diet in the body does not come glucose sources. It forces him to burn ketones - products of fat metabolism.
And it is not harmful to health?
There is no evidence that such a diet is beneficial in the long run. And it is determined that it is better than other diets helps improve their health or lose weight.
But my friend is losing weight!
Not everything that rapidly leads to weight loss and visible improvement of metabolism, - a good idea. Cholera also causes weight loss, blood sugar and blood lipids, but it does not mean that you want to catch! Only when the ketogenic diet is justified from a medical point of view - is the treatment of refractory epilepsy, in some cases, mainly in children.
Which is better: vegetable diet with carbohydrate or low-carbohydrate diet with meat?
According to existing data, the vegetable diet is much more useful in terms of two major criteria: longevity and vitality.
Carbohydrates - evil. It's the only thing I know about nutrition.
This is perhaps the most foolish of all foolish delusion imposed by popular culture. All plant foods - a source of carbohydrates.
Yes, but they - evil.
A variety of products - from lentils to candies, from bean to marmalade, from hazelnut to donuts - a source of carbohydrates. Most of the plants is almost entirely composed of these substances. If carbohydrates - evil, then vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds - too.
Yes, yes, but still need to avoid carbohydrates?
Just the opposite. Without carbohydrates can not be full of healthy food.
Why are all convinced that they are harmful?
Heavily processed foods from the grain and a large amount of sugar is harmful, but not because they carbohydrates. After processing is left nutrients in them, they raise insulin levels, they often add a lot of fat, sodium and strange ingredients. So it's not carbs - evil, and fast food.
What about gluten? now it seems, almost all did not suffer.
According to statistics, only a small percentage of the population can not tolerate gluten. About 1% of people suffering celiac diseaseAnd about 10% of hypersensitivity to gluten, which may be due to other factors, such as the breach of intestinal flora. All the rest have no problems with the digestion of protein.
So, if I do not have gluten intolerance (celiac disease), bread for me is not so bad?
Do I need to eat whole wheat bread?
White and whole wheat bread are significantly different from each other. Although this product is not required for an optimal diet, it is quite possible to include in your diet, especially whole grain. Good bread - one of the pleasures available to us in life. Eat it for that reason.
Everywhere they say that lectins are harmful and prevent lose weight. This is true?
Lectins exhibiting a threat - another great way to sell a book on fashion untested diet. Lectins are present in virtually all foods consumed by man. Including a lot of them in beans and lentils, fruits and vegetables, which have already proven to be beneficial.
By the way, about the beans. In some sources it is written that in them is low in fat, high in protein and fiber. In the other - they irritate the digestive organs, and because even toxic lectins.
Beans - the main thing in common in the diet of the representatives of different "blue zones". These are the places with the highest life expectancy. Beans are very, very, very helpful. To say that they have the potentially toxic components - the same that mark in the air of oxygen, which can also be potentially toxic.
And yet from the beans gases.
For some people, they are poorly digested, they can help the enzymes. Do not forget that all the beans should be cooked: raw, they are almost impossible to digest.
This is one of the most useful products for the health and for the environment. And given the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases linked to unhealthy diets, we do recommend to eat beans!
With regard to gas, from personal experience I can say that the more often you eat beans, the better they are perceived by the intestines.
Since we are talking about gases. I wholeheartedly for healthy foods: grains, nuts, legumes, fruits and vegetables. But they often cause bloating me. This does not happen when I eat "less useful" food.
This may be a sign of a food allergy or sensitivity to any product, irritable bowel syndrome, or problems with the microflora. First you need to make an accurate diagnosis, and to do this, seek medical advice. Must be suitable to you healthy EatingWithout causing unpleasant symptoms.
Do I have to have grain to be healthy?
No, but to optimize the diet difficult if you exclude whole grains. They are very nutritious, they have a lot of fiber, and it is usually very small in the typical Western diet. The above 15 grams, which we consume on average per day - half the recommended norm.
So, if the failure of the whole grains would lead to an even greater reduction in fiber in your diet, nothing good will.
I want to lose weight. Diet really is more important than sports?
Yes. It is much easier to gain back all the calories expended during run time than with jogging to burn all those tempting dishes that surround us marketers. Health and nutrition are important, and physical activity, with the second - to maintain weight. But to lose weight, it is more important to focus on the number of applicants, rather than burn calories.
If I want to lose weight, I have to eat less? And if I eat less, my metabolism is really slow?
If you starve, yes. And if you lose weight, too, because of smaller body burns less calories. But the effect is usually modest, if you have not lost an extreme amount of kilograms. This can be compensated for training and build muscle - and then, and more speed up metabolism.
What foods can help maintain weight loss?
Unprocessed foods, especially plant foods. And any food that you eat while participating in a bicycle race Tour de France.
What to look for on the label? Calories, fat or sugar content?
On the best products do not have labels, because it is just one ingredient: avocado, Lentils, blueberries, broccoli, almonds and so on.
But what about those on which there is a label?
Look for products with a short composition in which the items are similar to regular meals. If the ingredients are useful in themselves, then the product will be nutritious.
If the composition of a questionable - chemical additives, sugar, obscure oil, sodium - the same will be doubtful set of nutrients. Important overall nutritional value of a product, rather than the presence of a single substance.
And what about the interval of starvation? It really helps the intestines and effectively invigorates?
It is more efficient compared with doing nothing.
So, can I eat as I want, and sometimes starve to restart the diet?
Not. Fasting does not give a greater effect than calorie restriction. This is one way to control the daily intake of calories, but not the only one. If it suits you, it is a reasonable option. But there is no magic in it there.
And you can have the same thing every day?
Yes this it is reasonable. Good nutrition should be diverse, but new combinations you can try, for example, for dinner. Let's say, for breakfast you are always whole grain in cold or hot, fruits and nuts. For lunch - salad, soup or stew of vegetables and legumes. And for dinner - different options.
Is it true there superfudy?
If is understood that such a product does something extraordinary, then no.
But what about the movie? It's like a magical product.
No component in isolation from the overall quality of the diet can greatly affect health. If you eat badly, a single product that does not compensate.
If the prefix "super" refers to a set of nutrients in a food, rather than to the effect of it, if this word can agree. The product, in which a lot of valuable nutrients, and at the same time low in calories and harmful substances such as sugar and saturated fats, can be called the word "super."
And this applies not only to exotic berries from other planets, but also to those earthly foods like spinach, broccoli, blueberries, chickpeas, pinto beans, lentil, Kale, peaches, walnuts.
Avocados are helpful or harmful? They say they have a lot of fat, but "good".
Treat them like nuts: they are useful within reasonable limits. One avocado a day with sufficient accuracy. They are a great set of nutrients, including fats, like those found in olives.
That is good?
And they differ from the bad?
So what's the difference? They say you should avoid saturated fats.
In the first place in the diet is important balance. Saturated fats are bad are not in themselves, but because we use them too much. And it's bad. And they found even in some very nutritious foods.
How to strike a balance of fats in the diet?
To do this, you need a balanced diet. Correct fats (poly- and mono-unsaturated omega-3) can be obtained from nuts, seeds, olive, avocado and seafood.
Use a good vegetable oil, especially extra virgin olive oil. Limit the consumption of foods high in saturated fats. This most types of meat and dairy products, untrimmed, under suspicion as fast food.
What about animal fats, such as lard or beef tallow? Since they are natural, therefore, useful?
Any fat source is a blend of different fatty acids. Virtually all oils are several types of fats: saturated, Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated. Lard almost 40% consists of saturated fat, and beef and mutton fat - more than half. That's a lot.
All the best diets of the world at a fraction of saturated fat accounts for 10% of calories or less. Therefore, it makes no sense to increase their consumption. In addition, there is no evidence of their use - in contrast to the olive oil.
And coconut oil? First they said that it is good, then - that harmful.
No exact information that is useful. However, organic coconut oil, cold pressed, and probably not harmful. Yet olive useful.
All organic because it is better, right? At least, expensive. Tell me, what is better.
Yes. Without a doubt. For many reasons, including the fact that organic farming protects those who occupied them from harmful pesticides. And better for the environment.
But also the health benefits?
Prove the specific benefits of organic food is almost impossible. To do this would need a randomized trial comparing diets consisting exclusively of organic and non-organic food, but completely identical in every other way.
Okay, I'll choose organic. And you need to take probiotics?
It is known that a microbiome problems are very common, and correct intestinal bacteria contribute to good digestion, strong immunity, improve sleep and even weight control ...
Yes, what is the microbiome?
This ecosystem of a plurality of bacteria in digestive system. It's part of you. When you have improved mood, your microbiome too quickly recuperates.
One of the advertising moves common now, which helps to sell books - the idea that the microbes need to be fed. But let's think: every species on the planet knows that it is, quite unaware of the microbiome.
Animals eat the food to which are accustomed to, and within the existing microbes have adapted to live successfully in the digestive system. We should learn from them.
Probiotics can restore the germs, but almost precisely balanced nutrition to cope with it better. To begin, choose products that have undergone minimal processing, plant food and plain water.
Then remind them what probiotics.
This dietary supplements that colonize the digestive organs with new good bacteria. Imagine that the old lawn planting new quality seeds.
And sometimes overdose probiotics?
In theory, this can lead to goiter, ie, an imbalance of bacteria in the gut. But such cases are not fixed.
What happens if you eat too much yogurt?
We have no idea. Most likely, you overeat.
My friend never eat fruits and vegetables and even proud of it. Is it possible to be healthy without any of these products?
Qualified declare: no. Although nuts and seeds can be attributed to the fruit, and legumes and cereals to vegetables, still they are not interchangeable. In theory, you can eat a lot of beans, chickpeas, whole grains, nuts, seeds, adding fish and seafood.
Such food exactly useful to the modern diet of fast food and meat products. But definitely not healthy food, including vegetables and fruits.
They say even more useful fresh frozen - how can this be?
Sometimes these vegetables really better quality and higher nutritional value. Especially if they had been frozen instant, that is, they were frozen quickly at very low temperature immediately after collection.
Freezing slows down the aging of vegetable or fruit. So if the "fresh" product is brought from a distance, for the transport time, he certainly lost some nutrients, which are preserved in frozen form.
Ideal - fresh local vegetables, the next - frozen. And those who went long and long to keep the least benefit.
Food loses favor after heat treatment?
Yes and no. High temperature affects some antioxidants, for healthier fresh berries cooked. But some of the products, on the contrary, become nutritious after cooking. For example, you can not eat dry beans and lentils. A boiled, it is one of the most nutritious and healthy products.
Antioxidant lycopene, which makes tomatoes red, is better absorbed when we eat raw and cooked tomatoes. Cabbage, broccoli and most dark leafy greens are also better digested after mild heat treatment.
What should I do if I can not stand salad? Is it necessary to eat greens?
All herbs useful. This is one of the few foods that can be eaten with almost no restrictions. The greens are low in calories, but a lot of nutrients - antioxidants, fiber, vitamins and minerals.
What about soy? It is helpful or harmful?
Soy produce a variety of products. Some undergo significant processing: they add a lot of refined starch, heated oils, sugar and salt, but the nutrients and fiber in them almost does not remain.
What kind of soybeans have?
Traditional dishes from soy, such as tofu and tempeh, are useful. In the first place because they have a lot of nutrients. Usually such dishes meat substitute. But here soy as a dietary supplement is not such a good idea.
They say products with recycled soy cause cancer.
Contained in the soy material, the structure similar to estrogens, can cause the growth of cancerous tumors in laboratory animals. But the final effect of the consumption of tofu and tempeh - a decrease, rather than increase the risk cancer.
Usually advised to eat fish to get lean protein. But also say that a large number of fish in the body can get toxic substances, including mercury. Where is the truth?
Fish, without doubt, the most healthful animal protein source. But representatives of some species, especially among the major long-lived predators (tuna, mackerel, swordfish, shark), really accumulate mercury because they eat a lot of small fish.
It's not really an answer to my question.
Like any other product, the fish should not eat three times a day. If this is the only animal product in your diet and it does not dirty, you can use it once a day. Plus a small fish the presence of mercury is much less likely than large.
Maybe not to eat fish, take fish oil?
Quality nutritional supplements with fish oil is tested for contamination. However, the fishing catch of fish and krill, which in this case are necessary for the production, violates environmental sustainability, and this is a serious problem. So, if you want a food additive, selected from those in which the omega-3 derived from algae.
Nutritional supplements from algae?
How to get vitamin D in the winter when it is dark outside, and the bad mood?
Individual supplementation with vitamin D3 are safe, effective and inexpensive. In addition, many products additionally include vitamin D.
What are antioxidants and how best to introduce them to the diet?
Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables, and get all the necessary antioxidants. There is insufficient evidence that the additives that give them the same benefits as a diet rich in antioxidants. They are especially a lot of coffee, white and green tea, dark chocolate and cocoa, whole grains, legumes, nuts and red wine.
They say that moderate drinking is helpful.
Alcohol - a double-edged sword. It relaxes and there is a consensus that moderate drinking is beneficial, or at least not harmful. Moderate - it is two glasses per day for men and one glass for women. Men have higher levels of the enzyme alcohol than women, so they are more efficient processes alcohol.
Nevertheless, it is proved that there is a link between the use of virtually any amount of alcohol and the increased risk of cancer, including liver cancer and breast.
Then what alcohol is the safest? Choose the one where fewer carbohydrates and fewer calories?
If you think you drink alcohol for health, stop. If for fun - follow the measure and do not worry about the type of alcohol. Of course, if it is not solvent. As for calories, they are fewer in alcoholic beverages and more beer.
But what about the theory about the benefits of red wine?
Antioxidants from the grape skins have unique health benefits. It's as though suggests that red wine - the best kind of alcohol. But once again I repeat: do not drink alcohol to help health.
Please not take away my coffee! Caffeine in fact have a positive effect?
There are both positive and negative effects.
Vivacity, slightly improved thinking.
I will be sorry for asking, but what are the negative effects?
The potential increase in heart rate, increased pressure, nervousness, insomnia.
I love latte with which it is better to drink milk? Milk from the nut - it's just water with taste?
Not. But this is not a magic source of energy. Of course, as in cow milkIn such products add nutrients.
What is oat milk? How to milk and oats?
such milk produced by soaking the oats in water. Then it is milled and the mixture is filtered.
That is, in fact it is water with taste of oatmeal?
Well, there are some of the nutrients contained in the oats.
Milk generally need to drink?
Only if you were born yesterday. Literally.
But we need calcium. How it required an adult?
Calcium daily necessary dose depends on the activity level, diet, the amount of protein in the diet, acid load on the organism, stage of life (e.g., pregnancy, breast, aging) and other factors. Very averaged possible to tell - about 1000 milligrams per day.
What else there are sources of calcium besides dairy products?
Kale and other dark leafy greens, beans, soy. Calcium is present in quite a large number of products.
In 2018 always we talked about inflammation, that it is harmful and causes disease.
Itself - is not harmful. Inflammatory reactions are needed to protect the body from germs and cells that cause cancer.
Okay, but sometimes because it is harmful?
Harmful imbalance. And today we are more likely to consume foods with inflammatory and not inflammatory properties. For example, refined carbohydrates and sugar raise insulin levels and insulin causes inflammatory reactions.
Also in the modern diet of too much saturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids, provoking inflammation (in processed foods and vegetable oils, which are added).
Conversely, not enough omega-3 fatty acids (they are in fish, shellfish, nuts, and some seeds) and monounsaturated fats (olive oil, avocado, nuts and seeds), which have anti-inflammatory properties.
Wait, wait. It can be somehow easier?
Here is a list of useful products:
- Plain water instead of soda.
- The whole grain cereal instead treated.
- Fish and seafood instead of meat.
- Nuts, seeds, olive oil, avocado.
In other words, "anti-inflammatory" diet eliminates the use of highly processed foods, large amounts of meat and dairy products non-defatted, refined carbohydrates and sugar. Basically it consists of vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and plain water.
A soda you can drink?
Carbonated water without flavor additives are not harmful to human health. It sure beats the popular sugary sodas.
But is it not leaches calcium from the bones?
But before saying exactly what washes.
It does not wash away.
Can I drink diet soda? Or she really awful?
There is no evidence of its harm, but good, too. It is unclear even whether it helps control weight. According to recent dataArtificial Sweeteners: A systematic review of metabolic effects in youthArtificial sweeteners violate microflora and increase insulin resistance. This is a cause for concern and is another argument in favor of plain water.
Snacking at all possible? Or is it better to stick to three meals a day?
In terms of total insulin requirements is preferable to eat often and in small portions. Also, there is evidence that there are more useful in the first half of the day, and not load up at night. But the overall diet quality and quantity of calories is much more important.
Yes, a time reference can make a good diet is even better. However, if you have problems with the quality or quantity of food, no matter at what time you eat.
Which diet is generally useful: with a lot of protein, high in fat or no fat?
It is not interchangeable ingredients. The diet should be a moderate amount proteins and fats as well as carbohydrates. The latter are contained in almost all foods, but especially in fruits, vegetables, grains and legumes. Avoid highly processed foods and large amounts of animal foods.
I'm very busy inhabitant of the big city and sometimes for lunch eat a protein bar. This is bad?
Many of these bars nutritional value is identical to normal chocolate bar with nuts. In fact, they are more like a useless fast food than a normal meal.
But they are made of protein!
One of the biggest myths of the modern food just is what we need more protein. But it is more than enough modern Western diet.
feeling of fullness, which occurs after the absorption of the concentrated protein can be obtained by eating a protein bar, eggs, a jar of canned tuna, yogurt or nuts.
But I'm really busy. When the hand is not cans of tuna, a bar is better to choose?
Look for a clean and simple composition. That is, bar must be made from real food. But it is better to bring a hard-boiled egg or a can of sardines. And stop so hung up on protein. We guarantee that you will get it, and so are more than enough.
Yes, what is it about eggs? Now you can eat foods that are high in cholesterol?
Yes. Most often, high levels of this substance in the blood is not due to cholesterol in foods, and saturated fats and trans fats. The main thing to observe a measure. The average person gets the recommended rate of cholesterol, eating one egg per day.
About 30 years ago, scientists made a mistake in the assessment, because the saturated fat and cholesterol in the majority of products are found together. But cholesterol is not completely rehabilitated. Simply more often and so we get it within the recommended standards, but now in power there are more urgent issues: saturated fats, sugar, high sodium content.
How much protein do you need?
Less than most of us now receive. In a day recommend about 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body weight. That is, a man weighing 90 kilograms is enough to 90 grams of protein per day. 100 grams of salmon about 30 grams of protein, and in the cup boiled lentils - about 18. This 90-pound man easily eat for one meal twice. So getting enough protein is not a problem.
To build muscle, I take protein supplements necessary? They are vile, but I want to look like Wonder Woman.
(A) No. (B) Buy a cool bracelet. (C) Good luck! (Have you seen Gal Gadot?)
Since we are talking about Wonder Woman. What is better to eat before and after exercise to lose weight and gain muscle?
If you generally balanced diet, it does not matter. But before very long or intense workouts better to eat carbohydrates and proteins, and then load - concentrated antioxidants to restore muscle. But this recommendation is not for the usual trip to the gym, and for the marathon.
In all other cases, just eat well during the day, cooking techniques and distribute as you wish.
And what about GMOs? They say products with them very dangerous.
The products themselves - no.
Genetic modification - it's just a way of production, as well as the assembly line. Can we assume that the conveyor leads to health problems? It depends on what to collect it. The same can be said about products with GMO. The point in the ingredients, but not in the way they have made.
So, they can be eaten without fear?
Not. The real problem is the chemicals that are used in the cultivation of such products. Glyphosate is the most common herbicide in the world, with a high probability of causing cancer and other causes injury. Moreover, almost all the products that are currently produced by genetic engineering, at best useless. GMO often added to fast food, from which it is better to refuse.
That is fear still need.
Since 1996, the use of glyphosate increased by 15 times. The probability that it gets into our food is high.
Now the important question. From what foods I will have cancer?
International Agency for Research on Cancer to the first group of carcinogens considers meat and salted meat. They are not as harmful as tobacco, but there is credible information about their potential dangers. Red meat is part of a group 2A, that is "probably carcinogenic" product.
And if you fry it on a spit? It's kind of like a natural way to.
When zazharivanii products to black carbonized crust, especially meat, are formed carcinogens. This happens during the preparation of carbohydrates in very high temperature. For example, in the production of French fries and some cereal.
This carcinogenic factors, but it also applies to the sunlight.
So it's going to kill me or not?
With a reasonable diet dietary carcinogens make a very modest contribution to the overall risk of developing cancer. Their impact can not be compared with smoking. According toProportion and number of cancer cases and deaths attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors in the United States study in 2017, conducted by the American Cancer Society, 40% of cancers could be prevented by changing lifestyle. And almost 20% of cases are related to diet and physical inactivity.
In other studies, these figures are even higher. Whatever it was, if a good diet can prevent cancer in at least one out of five cases, and poor diet it displaces, it can be assumed that the poor diet of processed foods is carcinogen. We advise not to dwell on specific carcinogens. To reduce the risk of cancer, follow the diet regime as a whole.
Looks like meats and hot dogs - it's very bad.
Any "bad" product is considered as such, not only because you are eating it, but also because, from what you give up because of it. People who eat more meat products, presumably eat less vegetables and legumes. What is important is the overall diet. But if you attach to the impact of meat production on the environment and to animals, then yes, you should not eat them too often.
And how often "too much"?
We recommend one or two times a month, no more. But if you sometimes eat hot dogs, occasionally - a pizza with pepperoni, sometimes - cheeseburgers, and sometimes - bacon, all of these "times" are added to the regular consumption.
What about the meat "nitrate-free"? It is safer for your health?
Any product, on the packaging which has a catchy statement about the health benefits, should not be trusted. Yes, it is important that there is in the product. But more importantly, that it is. In no sugar cholesterolAnd in trans fat no sugar - and so what?
Ever appear artificial meat, which is useful, tasty and easy to prepare?
In meat grown in a laboratory, the obvious ethical and environmental benefits. It is not clear whether food from him benefit, whether there are weaknesses in how resources are used. Perhaps, in the production of such meat will spend more water. And it is too early to talk about taste.
But it is now clear that we will be able to eat less meat, and it will be grown more ethical way.
Is it so terrible if the diet is too high in sodium? We also need salt.
Excess amounts of salt accurately harmful. Most Americans eat it too much. But the fact is that 70% of the salt gets into our diet of processed foods and food catering. They are harmful because they have a lot of refined carbohydrates, sugars, saturated fats, omega-6 fatty acids, chemicals, not just sodium. If you reduce the consumption of such products, and its share will decrease.
What can you say about the sugar? It is harmful if there is it in moderation?
Sugar gives "empty" calories without nutrients. He quickly enters the bloodstream and stimulates the production of insulin. High levels of insulin promotes weight gain in the first place on the abdomen, which is particularly harmful.
And, more importantly, sugar and sweet taste of the appetite, so when the product has sugar, we eat more. The food industry is perfectly aware of this and add this component in the compositions. So that limiting sugar in the diet is important for weight control.
How to use sugar in moderation?
Limit consumption of processed foods and do not eat foods with added sugar. To do this, look at the composition: in this way can "improve" the sauces, dressings and even salty snacks. Calories derived from added sugar, should be less than 10% of the total daily amount. And ideally - less than 5%.
What about sugar substitutes and artificial sweeteners?
Probably they are better, but still their frequent use of more harmful than a diet low in sugars. When you eat, trying to avoid sweets in general, sometimes you can treat yourself to your favorite dessert.
How do you stay up to date, if the idea of proper nutrition is changing almost every day?
Determination of a healthy diet has not changed for some time. The main thing for optimal nutrition - unprocessed, whole plant foods. It is known to nutritionists for several generations.
Often changing fashion trends and marketing tricks. In order not to fall for tricks, focus on products rather than on nutrients. The diet may be optimal, even if it a little less or a little more fat, carbohydrates or protein.
The main thing - to strike a balance of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, and water.
If you choose the right products, and you get the nutrients you need. But if you get stuck on them, you quickly make sure that the poor can eat a variety of ways. And Western people seem to want to try them all.
Remember that the person in the process of evolution has adapted to different diets: the Arctic, the tropics, deserts and mountains eat completely different food. But no regime "by nature" does not include fast food or industrially produced meat products.
If you do not forget about it and balanced eat real food, you can not particularly worried. In fact, everything is quite simple.
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