What is ADHD
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHDAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)) - a neurological behavioral disorder that is itself sick can not control (this is important). It has three key symptoms. Or, in some cases, their combination:
- Inattention. The child is difficult to focus on the task at hand. It lacks the perseverance to continue the begun more than a couple minutes. And these problems are not related to the fact that he "does not listen" or does not understand the question.
- Hyperactivity. The child can not sit still, including in situations that require peace and quiet. He jumps, spins, knocking leg, asks a million questions, itches, or just giggle obviously nervous.
- Impulsiveness. This means that children do what they want instantly, without thinking about the consequences. For example, another child takes their car in the sandbox - beat the offender. It is necessary to the carousel - running toward her, pushing her shoulders rest. I wonder what is the reason the appearance of others - directly and loudly asked: "Why this old aunt so fat?"
Most often ADHD is associated only with hyperactivity. But this is a mistake. A child may be restrained and balanced phlegmatic. Just extremely inattentive.
For diagnosis doctor is sufficient to observe one or two of the above indicated disease manifestations. In this case, ADHD subdivided into types: predominantly inattentive and predominantly hyperactive-impulsive. But most of the children, all three problems are present in the complex - this type of ADHD is called combined.
How to recognize ADHD
If you think that almost all the children from time to time show a similar behavior, do not you think. Almost everyone at some point in their lives can behave as suffering from ADHD. That is why there is an opinion that this disorder does not existADHD and the Rise in Stimulant Use Among Children - they say, is a fiction designed to conceal the poor training or, say, a low level of intelligence.
But despite the controversial ADHD - it is an official medical diagnosis. International Classification of Diseases ICD-116A05 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder assigns it to neyroontogeneticheskim disorders - disorders in which psyche fails and produces a pathological response to sensory information coming from outside.
And there are very clear diagnostic criteria that help identify ADHD.
ADHD symptoms often first appear between the ages of 3-6 years, but mostAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) cases diagnosed between 6 and 12 years.
If you suspect ADHD in adolescents, but it is not sure whether he had the same problems in the preschool years, most likely, we are talking about some other disorder. Or just a problem with the behavior with no neurological motivated.
2. Symptoms that last for at least 6 months
For the diagnosis requires a long - at least six monthsSlideshow ADHD in Children - observation of the child's behavior. And not only in the home or familiar surroundings, but also in a kindergarten or school.
The doctor - a pediatrician, neurologist, psychologist, psychiatrist - is to talk in detail with the parents and by the child. And ideally interviewed other people who work with him - educators or teachers. Only it allows to lay down a coherent picture.
3. Symptoms that are repeated both at home and in the kindergarten or school
ADHD child can not control their behavior. Therefore, the symptoms will be the same - in a familiar environment that the preschool or school.
If your child can not seem to sit still, and second, carries a house and exhausts you with endless questions, but in kindergarten behaves normally, it's not about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
4. Symptoms that reduce quality of life
About the diagnosis can say, if you notice every day for at least some of the following symptomsAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
ADHD inattentive type of child:
- I am not able to for a long time (at least 5 minutes) to keep the attention on something one.
- Momentarily forgetting easily distracted than doing just that.
- Regularly allows elementary errors: in Example "1 + 2" may forget, that the first digit has been unit 4 and output response. Or reading to jump over the line and did not even notice it.
- Often distracted, can not perform a simple task, which can easily cope with other children.
- Regularly hears converts it to it parent, caregiver or teacher, because thoughts were somewhere else.
- It can not keep order in things, even when it is specially accentuate his attention.
- Endlessly loses things - mittens, pencils, books, purses, keys.
- Going somewhere, all the time "digging" - can quickly add the necessary accessories, even if they are very few.
When ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type of child:
- Can not sit still for longer than a few minutes. Literally: fidgets, twists, turns the brushes and knocking down.
- Often forgotten, and jumps off the situations where this can not be done, for example in the classroom.
- Exhibits purposeless motor activity: jumping, waving his arms, somewhere climbing or running.
- He is not able to play quietly and thoughtfully, for example independently collect designer.
- I can not wait for their turn. So, the question the teacher can answer, interrupting a classmate to whom the question was addressed.
- It can be very talkative, and often completely tactless.
- It seems devoid of a sense of danger that could threaten his life.
In the combined symptoms of ADHD can be combined. And in any type they apparently hinder the child. For example, due to restlessness or lack of concentration it can not learn the lesson or perform a task. And because of the lack of tact or sluggishness causes irritation in others.
How dangerous ADHD
Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity can persist into adulthood. This often results in serious psychosocial problemsAdult ADHD:
- poor academic performance, and, as a consequence, it is impossible to get a good education;
- lack of friends and support;
- ridicule and related mental injury;
- low self-esteem;
- inability to build and to comply with the plans;
- Optionally, it is bad for the career and relationships within the team;
- frequent mood swings;
- fervor, the propensity to commit rash acts;
- consistently high levels of stress that can lead to other mental disorders - eg, anxiety disorder or depression;
- it is impossible to build a long-term relationship, including the family;
- alcohol and drug abuse;
- Problems with the payment of debts and the law.
Conclusion: If the diagnosis of ADHD is made, the disease must be corrected.
How to Treat ADHD
To start with the good news.
From 30 to 70% of childrenSlideshow ADHD is AdultsWho was diagnosed with the syndrome, with his age "grow."
Others have children disorder remains for life. Cure it is not always possible to completelyAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, there are effective methods of correction, which reduce symptoms.
In particular, we are talking about behavioral therapy. A skilled therapist can help children cope with the emotions and disappointments in gaming form will teach social skills, for example, to wait for their turn and sharing, will not prosest self-esteem.
2. Work in the family
Family relationships - a key part of a successful correction. Parents extremely important to do everything to improve the already high levels of stress in the child.
Do not scold him for his carelessness, slowness or restlessness: ADHD children is not objectively able to handle it. Your task - to be a support to show the child that he is loved in spite of everything. You may also need psychotherapy that teaches to control their own emotions, and tells you where to draw the psychological resources needed to communication.
This is what can makeSlideshow ADHD in Children mother and father:
- Organize home life of the child. Try to observe the hard mode of the day with a clearly marked time, lift, breakfast, gathering in the garden or school, bathing, bedtime. Also worth a schedule that will remind the child that he has to do during the day. Do not forget to place the sheet with the schedule somewhere in a visible place - for example, to fix a magnet on the refrigerator door.
- Correct diet. about diet studies have yielded mixed results. Still, there is reason to believe that certain foods can help the brain to cope with the disorder. Add in the daily diet foods high in squirrel - meat, eggs, beans and nuts. Try to replace the fast carbs such as sweets and cakes slow - fruits, whole wheat bread. An important caveat: before changing diets should consult on this subject with observing the child's pediatrician.
- Limit time watching TV and playing with gadgets. No more than 2 hours a day!
- Be consistent in its actions. Children with ADHD need to be clear and predictable rules that must be respected.
3. drug therapy
The most frequently used in ADHD correction nootropics (substances that improve the functioning of the brain), and stimulants (to help control behavior). Which drug is needed in your case, it can be solved only by the doctor.
We must be prepared to ensure that the selected drug may be ineffective, and then need to change the drug.
In addition, it is necessary to inform the physician about any side-effects occur, including the deterioration of appetite or difficulty sleeping. This is also an indication to search for other drugs.
Where does ADHD
The exact cause of the disorder has not been established. But it is known that an overabundance of sugar or excessive TV viewing does not cause attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. An unbalanced diet or enthusiasm for gadgets can complicate ADHD correction. But they are not able to trigger its development.
a number of factors to allocate scientistsADHD CausesWhich seems to play a role in ADHD occurs.
Syndrome spreads in families, that allows you to associate it with genetics. It was found that if one parent was ADHD, a child will inherit the disorder with a probability of 50%. If a family already has an older brother or sister with the syndrome, primary risk is 30%.
ADHD often diagnosed in children born preterm or low-weight infants (under 2500 g).
3. Bad habits mother during pregnancy
ADHD is a risk of a child increases if her mother, nurturing the fruit, smoked, drank alcohol or drugs.
4. Damage to the frontal lobe of the brain
For example, when dropped. Frontal lobe is responsible for controlling emotions and behavior.
5. Exposure to toxins in infancy
Speech on the lead or pesticides. Poisoning caused by them are also able to trigger the development of ADHD.
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