Trap of thinking that make you spend more
Get Rich / / December 20, 2019
According to classical economic theory, people act rationally and make the most profitable decisions for ourselves. But behavioral economists do not agree with this. They believe that it is impossible to ignore features of the human psyche.
Our mind works according to its own laws, which are unlikely to be called logical and rational from an economic point of view. So today let's talk about pitfalls that drives us to our own mind. Try as far as possible to avoid them.
1. fear of losing
We are much more afraid of losing something than rejoice in the acquisition of new.
Try to imagine what the news will make a bigger impression on you - you got a raise, or that this year the expected prize will not let you? The experiments confirm that the loss we are experiencing stronger.
Remember the website of any course, where every now and then the message "There are only 10 seats." We are afraid to miss the opportunity and commit impulsive purchase.
2. Prejudice the status quo
This effect is partly related to the previous: us psychologically comfortable when things remain the same. The thing is that any change, even positive - it's stress.
We predpochtom rather stay with his bird in the hand than try to change something.
Answer a simple question: How often do you change your mobile operator? Over time, the old operator tariffs are growing, and the market there are more and more attractive offers for new customers. But we persist to suffer a disadvantage, but the familiar old.
It is possible to explain this reluctance to understand the intricacies of the connection. But numerous psychological experimentsStatus Quo Bias in Decision Making. We proved that the true reason for this behavior - the fear of being in a stressful situation, even if in the end you expect a reward.
3. Barnum effect
Think back to when you last read the horoscope. Even if you do not believe in all these predictions did not seem to score a second, partly they describe your life? If so, you are trapped in Barnum.
The bottom line is that most people tend to attribute the general and vague description as characteristic of his personality and life.
As you probably already guessed, this effect full use astrologers, fortune-tellers and other "predictors". The problem is that all the formulations of horoscopes are applicable to virtually all people without exception: "You are a responsible person, but can sometimes be wrong," "you like to have fun", "you are waiting for good news". The more positive descriptions, the more matches we find.
4. money illusion
We tend to think of a nominal, rather than real value for money. In other words, we have attracted large numbers, though much more important than the purchasing power of money (how many products you can buy a certain amount).
When the bosses announce a raise, you are satisfied that the steel earn more. Only hardly thinking about inflation, which "eats" all your increase. The new salary you can buy a smaller number of products than the old last year. Your financial status does not change.
But the fact that a pay raise is very important for a man, because he was nominally richer.
5. binding effect
It is our tendency to evaluate the number in the direction of the initial approximation. We estimate the value of a thing called the basis of the price the seller, and do not attempt to think it is true or not.
Especially brightly this effect in stressful situations.
You decide to rent an apartment, the landlord calls his price. You begin to bargain, starting from this number, although it is possible that objectively it is overstated by half. But our thinking leads us, and we mentally cling to this anchor.
6. possession effect
We tend to overestimate their property. It is not so important if you own a thing in reality. The main thing - to feel her own.
You've probably seen this effect in life, if at least once been on the market. There sellers crook convinces you hold the thing in his hands, try it.
Costs you only subconsciously feel their thing, you are ready to buy.
However, this rule there is an exception - experienced collectors. They are interested in obtaining the maximum benefit, are willing to share, and a more rational approach to the selection of their purchases.
7. Traps recessed costs
Another feature of our psyche - desperate reluctance to abandon loss-making business and move on. We are psychologically difficult to accept their losses, so we continue to invest in unprofitable stock or construction of a house, after so much effort and money has already been spent.
Effect recessed cost manifests itself in business and in everyday life. The example of General Motors: Management believes that Americans are actively buying up Japanese cars. And despite the fact that the sale is clearly indicated to the contrary, they continued over the years to produce a loss-making product. The situation changed only with the change of the control composition.
Or an example of the same traps in a typical domestic situation: wife not away from unloved husbandBecause "so many years have lived together." As a result - unhappy marriage and an unwillingness to recognize the obvious.
8. expectancy effect
The more we look forward to something, the more want to. the fact of waiting itself, intrigue adds product value in our eyes.
A striking example - the presentation of the new iPhone, which fans of the company each time waiting impatiently. However, there is this effect, and the reverse side: with each repetition of its strength is weakened. Hype becomes weaker around new models. If earlier people took place in front of the door to the store for a few days, then gradually this event is perceived by all is quiet and calm.
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