All you need to know about microcredit: A guide to loans "to pay"
Right Educational Program / / December 19, 2019
Layfhaker tells why microloans provide almost everything and how to borrow small amounts to not go broke.
What is microcredit?
Microcredit or mikrozaom - virtually the same loan, just a little. And take it for long. He issued only in rublesFederal Law "On microfinance and microfinance organizations" of 02.07.2010 number 151-FZ.
Traditionally understand microcredit loan in the amount of 30 thousand rubles for up to 30 days. This so-called loan "to pay" or PDL (payday loan).
However, the scope of such legislation have not been established. regulateFederal Law "On microfinance and microfinance organizations" of 02.07.2010 number 151-FZ Only the maximum size of the micro-loans issued to individuals: it can not exceed one million rubles for microfinance companies and 500 thousand for microcredit (about what they differ, below).
Moreover, the issue microloans and legal persons - but not more than 5 million rubles.
Then what microloans differ from conventional loans?
First of all, the interest rate - microlending it is much higher, and it is connected here with nothing. normalcredits issued by banks, micro-loans - MFIs. These institutions have a different status, and their activity is regulated by different laws. Due from banks are much stricter: their work is licensedFederal Law "On Banks and Banking Activity" dated 02.12.1990 № 395-1.
In this regard, banks are careful to choose whom to give a loan: need to confirm income, study credit history. MFIs also provide loans more readily, including those who banks denied accurately.
The risk that the money will not come back in time to the organization, is high, but it compensates with huge interest. In addition, microfinance institutions, even beneficial to the customer has delayed payment.
If the money is not returned, the lender will call, threaten court and collectors. Citizens often overpay and give the latter, including through refinancing, which is extremely disadvantageous.
Gennady Loktev, a lawyer of the legal service of the European
Let us compare the average market valueInformation on the average values of the total cost of consumer credit the total cost of consumer credit established by the Central Bank, for loans with similar terms and conditions:
|credits||The average market value of the total cost of consumer credit||
|The average market value of the total cost of consumer credit|
|Purpose loan up to 30 thousand rubles for a period up to one year||28.803% per annum||Microloan without collateral up to 30 thousand rubles for a period of 181 days to 365 days||144.599% per annum|
|Purpose loan from 30 to 100 thousand rubles for the period up to one year||16.469% per annum||Unsecured microloan from 30 to 100 thousand rubles for a period of 181 days to 365 days||150.868% per annum|
The full cost of the loan is determined on the day of conclusion of the contract is based, how much the borrower has the money to spend on taking into account the associated costs in the form of insurance, and the like. The data of the Central Bank, as well as any average values show only a rough picture. But even so, the difference in the conditions of the loans is obvious.
For example, you take on 80 thousand a year in the bank and MFI. In the first case you need to return a little more than 93 thousand in the second - 200 thousand. It's rough calculations, as there is no additional input, but they are eloquent.
banks profitable to issue long-term loans, as low interest rates, they barely get a profit if they are to give express loans. MFI microloans is beneficial because of the high interest on them.
Ie MFIs are not related to the banks?
Microfinance institutions can operate without a license. They are allowed to have a smaller share capital, they can not attract deposits from the public on the traditional scenario and perform most of the financial transactions that allowed banks.
MFIs are divided into microfinance and microcredit companies. For the consumer, it has a value of one difference between them: the former may provide customers with up to 1 million, the second - up to 500 thousand rubles.
But there are other, less significant difference for the customer. For example, the size of the charter capital of microfinance companies should be not less than 70 million, it is can raise money from individuals who are not founders in the form of investments - but not less than 1.5 million.
All microfinance and microcredit companies included in the registerState register of microfinance organizationsWhich leads the central bank. He keeps track of whether or not they comply with the rules of law.
If microloans such unfavorable conditions, why they take?
Get them is much easier than conventional bank loans. You do not need a certificate of wage and decent credit history.
In a statement the bank for a loan for a while, consider and make decisions - to approve or reject. The MFI usually approve a loan without verifying the solvency and once - enough to have a passport and a desire to take credit.
The whole idea of microcredit is not so bad. It is an outlet for those who urgently need money and who are prepared to quickly bring them back. For example, you need expensive medicine, and the salary in just two days. You take microcredit and return it the next day - even with large overpayment percent receive moderate.
Microcredit is a tool, the effects depend on how you use it.
The problems begin when the microloans misused. Here are common situations:
- A person can not pay for a mortgage, and it takes a microloan to carry the money to the bank. As a result, he will have to continue to pay and for a mortgage, and for a microloan. And chances are that it will have the means to both premium sharply reduced. The following month, he did not have enough money for two payments. He will choose, to make money for an apartment, so as not to lose it, or attributed to the MFI. Whatever decision he took no, the situation is getting out of control, and a high risk that the debt will continue to grow like a snowball.
- The man lost his job, so takes microloan "To life" - not to starve same to him. Strategy a failure: there is nothing to repay, since income is not expected, and with the money from part-time work is more logical to buy food.
- Man needs a large sum, but the banks refused him. He takes credit in microfinance institution, not paying attention to how much it would cost him to do the loan.
As a result, the debt grows at a microloan, and pay it first becomes difficult, then - it is impossible. Now the Russians have nearly 40 microfinance institutionsThe BCI was called the volume of overdue debts to the Russians MFI billion rubles. One of the main reasons for this situation - low financial literacy of the population.
So what, people are to blame, and MFI do with it?
Microfinance organizations "help" people to make wrong financial decisions. The misleading ads often introduced, of which potential customers are doing the wrong conclusions.
For example, they write large letters that make loans at an interest rate of 0.5%. About the same, that the interest is calculated daily, rather than a year, has been reported in small type - on the one hand, the law on advertisingFederal Law "On Advertising" from 13.03.2006 number 38-FZ I have been respected and, on the other hand, few people will examine with a magnifying glass classified.
And if the debt of MFIs are not ready to meet customers - unlike banks, which provide the opportunity to loan restructuring or postponement of payments.
The purpose of the MFI - give a small amount and get a decent profit. Therefore, it is advantageous when due to delay "drip" additional interest. At best, there will be offered to extend the period of repayment of the debt by paying for it later.
But signed a contract for the microloan Yet the people themselves.
And the state does not do anything to prevent this?
Attempts to limit the amount of debt taken. Thus, the first restrictions on growth of the debt was not. On March 29, 2016 overpayment microloan term should not be up to one year has been more than four-foldFederal Law of December 29, 2015 № 407-FZ "On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation and Invalidating Certain Provisions of Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation" size of the debt.
On January 1, 2017 overpayments limited three-timeOn the protection of rights and legitimate interests of individuals in the implementation of the return of overdue activities debt and on amendments to the Federal Law "On microfinance and microfinance organizations " debt size. A interest on late thus charged only on the outstanding balance. But they can not exceed the debt more than doubled. These rules apply for those who took a microloan from 1 January 2017 to 27 January 2019.
For treaties in force since 28 January 2019 introduced newThe Federal Law of 12.27.2018 number 554-FZ "On Amending the Federal Law 'On Consumer Credit (Loan) "and Federal Law" On microfinance activities and Microfinance Organizations " restrictions. For consumer loans up to one year, including the micro-loan overpayment can not exceed the loan amount is more than 2.5 times. As soon as the total debt reaches this figure, the law prohibits charging interest, fines and penalties.
If you borrowed 10 thousand, the return will not have more than 35 thousand.
On July 1, 2019 limit will be equal to two-time amount of the loan, but with January 1, 2020 it will not exceed the amount of the loan is more than 1.5 times. Limited and the interest rate: 1.5% per day from 28 January, less than 1% - from 1 July.
These restrictions do not apply for loans up to 10 thousand rubles, and for up to 15 days. For such loans the interest and the penalty is not charged when the overpayment will be 30% of the loan amount. But you can be fined for delay of 0.1% on the day of rest the proportion of debt.
It is possible to take a loan and do not rush his return?
So do definitely not worth it. Although the growth of debt and limited by law, the consequences of failure to pay will still be. Here's what it can be dangerous.
Bad credit history
Information on microloans is transmitted to the credit bureau. If you do not return the money in time, it will be reflected in it, and the amount of loans at low interest rates banks will be forgotten. At least 10 years after the return of the debt, while the data will not go to the archive.
Familiarity with bailiffs
MFI can try to recover debts through the courts. If the decision will be made in its favor, the bailiffsFederal Law "On Enforcement Proceedings" from 02.10.2007 number 229-FZ arrest of accounts, describe and sell the property. In addition, you will not be able to travel abroad.
Communication with collectors
Microfinance institutions are actively using the services of collectors - so that debtors microloans shieldedFederal Law "On protection of rights and legitimate interests of individuals in the implementation of activities to return overdue debt and on amendments to the Federal Law "On microfinance and microfinance organizations" of 03.07.2016 № 230-FL from intrusive calls and visits by a special law. Collectors are allowed to:
- communicate with the debtor with his consent;
- reminded of the debt and to talk about the consequences of its failure to pay;
- call the creditor no more than once a day, twice a week, eight times a month;
meet in person only once a week.
In reality, the legal requirements are not always followed, and collectors often terrorizing and debtors"I lost the most precious thing in his miserable life." Collector threatens to throw acid NizhegorodkaAnd their relativesA resident of Krasnoyarsk took 28 microloans and collectors terrorizing its neighbors.
And if microcredit is needed, what to look for?
Be sure to do the following:
- Check to see if the organization is, where do you intend to take the money in the register of the Central Bank. If not, its activity is illegal.
- Carefully read the contract - every line printed large and small print. Be sure to look, how much you charged interest per annum. Look at the schedule of payments in order to understand when and how much you should pay. Pay attention to the cost of additional services, if any, fines and penalties, as well as the MFI plans to charge them.
- Sign the contract, only if you understand everything and questions remain.
Points to remember
- Microloans are granted at very high interest rates, but almost everyone - is connected with this their popularity.
- Microcredit can take if you are in urgent need of money and you are ready to quickly extinguish it.
- No need to take mikrozaom, if you are already in a financial hole: it will only worsen your situation.
- If ASSUME microcredit, read carefully the contract.
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