What are carbohydrates
This is one of the three types of macronutrients, ie substances that nourish the body. The remaining two - fats and proteins.
Carbohydrates are divided into classes:
- Sahara - the individual sugar molecules or short chains of these molecules. This glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose.
- starches - the long chain carbohydrate molecules that are broken down into smaller components in the digestive tract.
- Cellulose - carbohydrates that are not digested.
The main function of carbohydrates - to give the body energy. Most of them breaks down in the digestive tract to glucose, and it already is the fuel. Each gram of carbohydrates gives 4 kcal. Exception - fiber, which is a lot less calories.
What to remember: carbohydrates - it nutrients that provide energy.
Why do not all carbohydrates are created equal
To understand how much you need carbohydrates, is not easy, because they are different. Most often, carbohydrates are divided into simple and complex. The former include sugar, and to the second - starches and fiber.
However, this classification may falter because foods with high starch content can both benefit and harm health (especially refined processed cereals).
In addition, different sugars areDietary sugars and cardiometabolic risk: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of the effects on blood pressure and lipids on the body. The sugar that is added to baked goods or beverages is harmful. But the natural sugars of the fruit or vegetable is not nightmarish health effects. So that the definitions of complex and simple carbohydrates should be clarified.
- Complex carbohydrates - carbohydrates from raw foods, including fruits, beans, whole grains.
- simple carbohydrates - sugars and starches which have cleared of tissue and processed.
What to remember: complex carbohydrates are found in raw food. Simple carbohydrates with a lower nutritional value - in the treated.
What is the difference between carbohydrates
Complex carbohydrates are healthier simply because they have higher density of nutrients. That is, along with each calorie they supply the body antioxidants, fiber, vitamins and minerals. But simple carbohydrates - this is just the calories and nothing else.
To understand what's all the same difference, comparable with whole grain cleaned. The whole grains have three parts:
- embryo - part of the grain, which a lot of polyunsaturated fats and other nutrients.
- Endosperm - the inner part of the grain, which is mainly composed of starch.
- shell - solid outer portion of the grain, which are high in fiber and essential fatty acids.
The embryo and the shell (bran) - all the best, useful and nutritious. But during processing shell and germ removed, so that there is only a starchy endosperm.
Compare how nutrients contained in 120 g of purified and whole wheat grain.
|whole grains||Refined grains|
|Caloric content, kcal||407||455|
|Thiamine% of the daily value||36||10|
|Riboflavin% of the daily value||15||0|
|Niacin,% of the daily value||38||8|
|Vitamin B6,% of the daily value||20||8|
|Folic acid,% of the daily value||13||8|
|Vitamin B5,% of the daily value||12||5|
|Iron,% of the daily value||2||8|
|Magnesium,% of the daily value||41||7|
|Phosphorus% of the daily value||42||13|
|Potassium% of the daily value||14||4|
|Zinc% of the daily value||23||6|
|Manganese% of the daily value||228||43|
|Selenium% of the daily value||121||61|
Whole grain wheat - a source of important substances which are lost during cleaning and handling.
The same is the case with fruits and vegetables. The fresh eat sugar, but there are vitamins, minerals and fiber. But in processed cooked (especially in the semis) and even squeezed vegetables sugar more, and less nutrients. In addition, ready meals and drinks sugar more often and add.
What to remember: complex carbohydrates such as whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, nutritious. In simple carbohydrates more calories, but less useful substances.
The beneficial complex carbohydrates
Do not cause surges in blood sugar
Simple carbohydrates are digested quickly, and because of this sugar in the blood increases. Jumps in the level of sugar causes the pancreas to produce more insulin dose, and this is leading to a sharp drop in sugar. When he was little blood, we again want to eatEffects of dietary glycemic index on brain regions related to reward and craving in men - we reach out for more of something tasty.
Complex carbohydrates are rich in fiber are digested more slowly. Sugar of them enter the bloodstream gradually, which means that there is no jumpsWhole Grains, Legumes, and the Subsequent Meal Effect: Implications for Blood Glucose Control and the Role of Fermentation. Therefore, complex carbohydrates provide the body with energy evenly, helping to keep longer feeling of satiety.
Reduce the risk of chronic diseases
Complex carbohydrates with regular use of reducedAssociation between dietary whole grain intake and risk of mortality: two large prospective studies in US men and women the risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes or diseases of the cardiovascular system. All because of fiber, vitamins and other substances, which were discussed above: they helpCritical review: vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases in prevention.
Moreover, studies have shownInsoluble carob fiber rich in polyphenols lowers total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic sujectsThat the consumption of complex carbohydrates reduces the amount of "bad" cholesterol in the blood and increases the amount of "good".
billions of beneficial bacteria live in the intestines, which are called microbiota. It affects not only the health of the intestine, but also the entire body. Fiber from complex carbohydrates - is food for the beneficial bacteria. The more you feed them, the better they work, for example, produce nutrients such as short chain fatty acids, which are importantReview article: prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. the health of the gastrointestinal tract.
Inflammation - the body's natural response to infection or injury. If the process is delayed, it provokesInflammation, pain, and chronic disease: an integrative approach to treatment and prevention the development of many serious diseases, including cancer and diabetes.
Complex carbohydrates help fightThe effects of diet on inflammation: emphasis on the metabolic syndrome inflammation, but the simple sugars, on the contrary, supports it.
The simple carbohydrates are harmful
To be healthy, there are few complex carbohydrates. We must also give up simply because they:
- Provoke overeating. Simple carbohydrates are digested quickly and cause spikes in blood sugar levels. This causes a constant feeling of hunger.
- Increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes. Research has shownPotential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular diseaseThat people who often eat simple carbohydrates more likely to develop heart disease and blood vessels.
- Increase the risk of type II diabetes. Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates canFructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia make cells resistant to insulin action. This is the reason of diabetes diabetes the second type.
- Lead to sugar addiction. Sugar stimulates the brain to produce dopamine. People who are prone to addiction can get hooked on the sweet.
- Increase the weight. Simple carbohydrates affect the level of hormones responsible for appetite, and so that increasesHigh glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity the risk of obesity.
What is and what is not worth it
The diet should be carbohydrates, but only the good: Complex, fresh, raw.
Where to find complex carbohydrates:
- Whole grains: oats, buckwheat, barley.
- Legumes: peas, beans, beans and lentils (unpreserved).
- Vegetables and fruits: any better fresh or minimally processed.
- Nuts and seeds: hazelnuts, almonds, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds.
Where to hide the simple carbohydrates:
- Sweet drinks: juices, sodas, cocktails, sweet tea and coffee.
- Desserts and candies.
- White bread from wheat flour milling.
- Pasta: those that are made from soft wheat.
Complex carbohydrates nutritious simple. They have a lot of fiber and nutrients. Therefore, the more we eat them, the healthier we become. But simple carbohydrates may be delicious, but it is useless and even harmful.
- Product 10, in which calcium is greater than curd →
- Is it saturated fats kill us →
- What happens to your body if you give up carbs per month →