How to care for cacti: a comprehensive guide
Do It Yourself Educational Program / / December 19, 2019
Where to put a cactus
Place the plant in a bright spot on a windowsill or near a window. If the light is not enough, the cactus with the times will be extended and deformed.
In the warm season, when the temperature drops below + 16-18 ° C, take out the green pet to the balcony. But do not forget to make sure that he was not burned. Put into the shade or cover with paper or gauze in the first few weeks. And remember that when a burn on the plant first appear pale and discolored areas, and after - light brown dry spots that do not go away over time.
If you want your cactus zatsvol spring or summer, let him spend the winter at a temperature of +10 ° C. Just put a plant between the window frames or other cool place and close the screen of a film or glass.
If this is not possible, leave the cactus in the same place.
How to water the cactus
What water to water the cactus
soft only. Because salt contained in hard tap water, at plants and soil will be white plaque.
You can use filtered, boiled and the supernatant water a day or two. Melted snow and rainwater - is also good if you do not live in the city. And can be watered with distilled water. If you prefer it, mix with creamed in a ratio of 1: 1.
Ensure that the liquid is at room temperature or at two degrees warmer. Otherwise, you can harm the root system.
Every 3-4 watering useful acidic water. The undistilled liter of water just dilute citric acid on the tip of a knife.
What are the irrigation technique used
Gently and slowly pour water into the pot, so that the earth was soaked gradually. Try not to water the cactus. Otherwise moisture will get into microcracks on its stalk and start rotting.
In summer and autumn, always remove the excess moisture from the pan, otherwise the roots will rot. Briefly leave water only when the first spring watering.
Pour the water into the sump and wait gets wet topsoil. After the merge everything that is not absorbed.
You can also put the pot in a container with water for 15-20 minutes. After pull it out, let excess water drain and return to pan.
How often to water the cactus
It all depends on the time of year. From November to March, if you decide to remove the plant in a cool place, it is better not to water. If the cactus will remain warm, watered, but rarely, about once every two to three weeks.
When the growth and crown cactus appear in March and April become green, renewable watering after a dry winter. For the first time enough tablespoon of water, then gradually increase the dosage.
Spring interval between waterings approximately 10-15 days for the plant, and wintering in the cool and warm. Pour water in the morning, so the excess moisture will evaporate during the day.
In the summer watering cactus about once a week in the evenings. In very hot weather reduce the interval between waterings a day or two, and when the cool and bad weather increases.
With the advent of autumn, gradually cut back the frequency of watering, to chills before the earth was completely dry. Not poite cactus to satiety, if he will spend the winter in the cool. Otherwise it can deform the barrel.
The main rule for any season - the best rare and abundant than often a little bit. Let the ground dry completely. In addition, the pet itself will tell you when it's time to drink it. If cactus slightly "blown away" and wrinkled - it's time.
How to fertilize the cactus
Fertilize the plant in the period of active growth, but no more than 2-3 times per season. Use it only a special fertilizer, the proportion of funds for harm other plants cacti.
If you transplant a cactus to feed him in the first few weeks, it is not necessary. Allow the roots to recover from the change in the conditions and possible micro traumas.
Follow the dosage of an agent that use it. From an excess of fertilizer plant significantly increase in size and swell. In very advanced cases cactus may break. If this happens, sprinkle the wound gray (you can buy it at the pet store) or pounded activated carbon for disinfection. Over time, cracks formed on the site of the scar.
How to transplant a cactus
Repot the plant every few years. So you update your potting soil, which eventually exhausted, and provide more space for developing root system.
What is needed for a pot of cactus
Pick up the new pot so that it was a couple of centimeters more than the previous. The material may be any. The main thing that was on the bottom of a few drainage holes. Without them, water will stagnate and the roots will rot over time.
The shape is also selected based on their preferences. For plants, it is not so important. The only caveat - square pots smaller, they can be placed close to each other and put a few pieces on one pallet.
What land is needed for cactus
For landing take special primer for cacti, in approximately equal proportions mix it with coarse sand and add about 10% of charcoal. Since the soil becomes loose, it increases its breathability.
If you prefer garden or forest land, be sure to sterilize it before use. For example, a half-hour steam the water bath for 30-40 minutes, or a wet substrate was calcined in an oven at a temperature of 80-90 ° C. Otherwise you risk to bring parasites along with the ground.
The same treatment can be performed for the store of the earth, if you have doubts about its quality.
Regardless of the substrate on the bottom of the pot with cactus necessarily place a layer of expanded clay, gravel or other drainage. It will protect the roots from rotting due to excess moisture.
If you decide to decorate the land of the sea pebbles or quartz pebbles, be sure to boil them for 10-15 minutes and rinse.
How to conduct transplant
Before transplanting wear gloves. A cactus take using pot holders of cardboard, folded paper, foam or foam rubber.
Take the pot, gently invert and barely pushing a pencil through the drainage holes, push the earth com.
Shake off the root system from the ground. Shorten too overgrown roots, so they were placed in the new pot, and treat the cut coal. If the soil is still the old type, wash the root system is not necessary.
Place the plant in a new pot so that the roots do not wrap the not buckled. Carefully pour the ground, the lower part of the stem, leave open.
How to care for cactus after transplant
It all depends on the time of year. If you transplant a cactus in the winter, water it is not necessary. When transplanting in the warm humid land watering say about a week and a half, not before. During this time will have time to delayed wound from mechanical damage.
What if the cactus is not blooming
Reasons for not flowering various. Eg barbed pet is still young and have to wait another year or two. Some cacti bloom at all, only reaching a certain size.
But perhaps the most common cause - wrong wintering. Warm the contents and plentiful watering prevent drilling of buds. With the departure do not count on flowering. Observe the seasonal schedule of care and prickly pet will thank you blooms.
How to care for flowering cactus
When the cactus buds kicked, it is important to just leave him alone. Do not move or carry the pot to find a better place.
With fertilizers and irrigation, too, it is desirable to wait.
Flowering spikes have different takes from a couple of hours to a couple of weeks. And all this time it's better to just enjoy, without changing anything.
How to treat cactus
Like all plants, cacti can get sick. And the sooner you will notice the symptoms, the greater the chance of cure plant. Here are common problems with cacti.
Etiolation (deformation due to the lack of light)
- Symptoms: the plant turns pale, drawn.
- Treatment: to find a cactus a brighter place or use additional lighting.
- Symptoms: brown spots, spider on the plant.
- How to treat: treat by means mites - acaricide. Preparations against insects will not help.
- Symptoms: white plaque on a plant similar to cotton. Pests themselves also resemble small lumps of cotton.
- How to treat: remove plaque and insects with a soft brush or damp cloth. Insecticide-treated on the basis of thiamethoxam. Folk remedies (treating alcohol and soapy solutions) Use only with a small defeat.
- Symptoms: tiny flat scales on a cactus.
- How to treat: remove the pests, and insecticide-treated several times.
- Symptoms seen on a cactus insect colonies.
- Treatment: treat with insecticide.
- Symptoms: cactus grows poorly, but there is no obvious damage to the stem. The ground white blotches.
- Treatment: the roots clean of soil and rinse with hot water (temperature up to 60-65 ° C). Remove the damaged parts. Repot the plant in new soil. For treatment use Akhtar, konfidor or the like.
- Symptoms characteristic spots of various sizes.
- Treatment: Cut the damaged area and treat the cut. Sprinkle with antifungal agents - fungicides. If on the roots rot in the initial stage - remove decaying portions and disinfect. Transplant and start watering only three weeks later. In severe cases, cut the top part and entrenched. Be sure to treat with fungicides.
How not to get sick cactus
- Do not water cacti, at a temperature below +12 ° C.
- Do not use cold and hard water.
- Treat any wounds on the stem and roots.
- Do not overfill.
- Avoid stagnant water.
- Quarantine new plants. The first 2-3 weeks keep them separate from the main collection, take care in the usual way and periodically inspected for diseases.
- Isolate the sick plants.
- Carefully select and sterilize the soil.
- 1-2 times a year Treat by fungi and insects.
- Regularly inspect the plant.
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