10 common misconceptions about flying to the moon
Forming / / December 19, 2019
In 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin prilunilis, stuck in the Earth's natural satellite of the Stars and Stripes and the curve had its background selfie. This was followed by five more landings.
But despite the huge number of photos and videos, a lot of people (for example, as many as 57% of Russians ResearchScience and Society: credibility and trust VTsIOM) do not believe that the moon has gone before. We've gathered 10 of the most common reasons conspiracy theorists who deny the reality of flight and prepared arguments that will help dispel their doubts.
1. Americans could not run the "Apollo" to the Moon
The argument of conspiracy: US significantly inferior USSR in space technologies. Therefore, all flights "Apollo" and "Saturn" is not possible.
What really: at the beginning of the space race of the USSR, and indeed ahead of the Americans. The first satellite, the first man in space, the first spacewalk, the first lunar rover... But then the backlog began to decline.
The Americans, in response to our projects there were the Discoverer - first photo-reconnaissance satellites with the returned capsules with photographic film and Echo 1 - first communications satellite. And yet the probe Lunar Orbiter, who shot the moon's surface, and the lander Surveyor, committed on her landing. Took place and manned flights in Earth orbit at Mercury and Gemini ship.
In addition, before the "Apollo 11", made the first landing on the moon, were still "Apollo 7-10", which made the satellite flyby Earth. So Americans went to conquer the night light enough prepared.
2. On the moon nobody else flies
The argument of conspiracy: if the Americans flew to the moon, then why not do it now? And if before they had such advanced technology, why now they are buying our engines?
Do not fly to the moon right now for one simple reason: it is very expensive, but it is useless. It is because of the high cost and further flights were canceled, "Apollo." cost of the program amounted to almost US $ 25 billion in 1969 - about $ 175 billion today.
The scientific use was low and did not cost a huge waste of money and all the associated risks. That is why, when the victory in the "lunar race" over the USSR was achieved and flights are no longer significant for US prestige program "Apollo" turned.
With regard to the alleged degradation of the US after the flight to the moon and go to Russian engines RD-180... and the truth is used in the American rocket "Atlas" and "Antares". But at the same time the most powerful missile in the world - Delta IV Heavy (at least, it was the most powerful until Falcon Heavy by SpaceX) - fly on their own American engines.
SpaceX and Blue Origin make their engines, The Minotaur and Pegasus are exclusively American equipment, they also flew on the shuttles engines, produced in the United States. So it's not so bad - American missiles do not forgotten how.
3. deadly radiation
The argument of conspiracy: Americans could not cross the Earth's radiation belts, also known as the Van Allen belts. They would certainly have killed radiation. Therefore, flights to the Moon - a lie and expeditions to other planets is possible. At least, not yet invented protection from radiation.
What really: dangerous space radiation greatly exaggerated. Radiation sickness occurs when subjected to human exposure from 200 to 1000 rad in a few hours. The Earth has two distinct radiation belts. The crew of "Apollo 11" has overcome the first of them, the most active, in 7 minutes. Second, in which approximately as irradiation by electron-beam tube in older televisions, craft flying in less than two hours.
Such flights are still not very good for health, but "Apollo" was fairly well insulated. according to measurementsThe Deadly Van Allen Belts? NASA, the average dose of radiation over a 12-day mission was only 0.18 rad (the maximum allowable - 50 rad). This is comparable to the dose received by you at chest X-ray.
But if we speak honestly, Alan Shepard, the first American astronaut to more and fly to the moon with the mission "Apollo 14," has died at age 75 from leukemia. Apparently, insidious radiation is still finishing off his.
4. Flag waving on the moon
The argument of conspiracy: flag set astronauts, Fluttering as if the moon is, the air and the wind. But it is obvious that they should not be there! So shooting was carried out in the world.
What really: all the photographs from the moon American flag fluttering really looks like the wind. This is because it is hung on the L-shaped flagpole. Look at these two pictures presented NASA. They show that the astronaut has changed position of the body, but the flag has not changed - it folds froze motionless. This behavior of matter is possible only in conditions of low gravity and lack of atmosphere.
NASA AS11-40-5874-75 (full)
If you look at the flag installation video, it can be seen as an astronaut shaking him, trying to screw the base of the flagpole in the lunar soil. That is why the flag bit pokolyhalsya - not in the wind.
And for example, in this video, filmed during the expedition "Apollo 16", shows how matter behaves at the weakened gravity - frozen and not moving.
Total on the moon has been found six flags, and the shadows of them even managed to filmSix Flags on the Moon:
What is Their Current Condition? from orbit.
5. In the photographs can not see the stars
The argument of conspiracy: in pictures from the moon can not see the stars - the sky is absolutely black. This proves that the drop-off shooting "Apollo" were carried out in the pavilion. Why NASA employees are not glued to the ceiling with painted backdrops pavilion stars? Apparently, not guessed.
What really: if it comes to that, not only in the pictures from the moon the stars can not see. If you look, for example, the photograph of astronauts and cosmonauts, made on ISSAnd there is also no stars. So, the ISS is also no?
The reason is that during the shooting in space by the light of the sun any objects, such as Earth, ISS, spacesuit astronaut or the lunar surface, covered many times brighter than the light of the stars in the background plan. The latter do not appear, because the camera can not gather enough light from them in a short exposure.
Photograph stars possible only at a slow shutter speed, and thus it is desirable to be on the night side of the moon. For information on how to take pictures of stars in space, more says Tim Peak, British astronaut to the ISS.
In this case, the photographs from the moon can still be found stars. Example - the photo below.
The photograph was taken by astronauts, "Apollo 16" John Young and Charlie Duke April 21, 1972 with a special camera.
6. There was no one to take takeoff "Apollo" to the Moon
The argument of conspiracy: there is a video demonstrating how to take off from the lunar lander. If the subject really were there, as the operator could remove it? He that remains on the ground surface of the moon?
What really: in this video the last people ever visited the Moon, Leave it. Lander "Apollo 17" rises into the sky to begin the journey back to Earth.
And it takes a camera fixed on the lunar rover (the very compact car, which the astronauts of missions "Apollo 15, 16, 17" traveled on the moon). The camera is controlled remotely from the ground operator Ed Fendellom in Houston. There was, however, a two-second delay (so much signal goes to the Moon), but that did not stop Ed remove takeoff.
By the way, fun fact: before leaving the Moon, one of the astronauts "Apollo 17," Eugene Cernan - the last man to walk on the surface of the night lights, - wrote in the lunar dust initials of his daughter, nine-year Tracy.
7. The shots from the Moon shadows correctly positioned
The argument of conspiracy: landing on Earth satellite took off in the pavilion under the lights. How else to explain that photos with the moon shadows are not parallel? After all, on the moon one light source - the sun!
What really: rough surface of the moon, even with a single light source may cause irregular shadows. Because the lunar soil - regolith - a good reflection of sunlight. In addition, the shadows are not parallel, and more due to the effect of perspective. If these pictures were taken in the pavilion under the spotlights, the objects they would have a few shadows, but this is not observed.
In 2014, NVIDIA is demonstrating the capabilities of their graphics cards GeForce GTX 980 and GTX 970, has created a three-dimensional model of the landing of the crew of "Apollo 11" on the moon.
And this visualization clearly shows the behavior of the sunlight and shadows on the moon.
8. Stones on the moon - requisites
The argument of conspiracy: one allegedly moon stone clearly visible letter «C», wrought marker or felt-tip pen. The letter written on the props for filming in the pavilion so that workers know where to put which stone.
What really: Yes, there is a photo of stone made during the mission "Apollo 16", where «C» letter is clearly visible. Although wait a minute ...
At the original photo of stone nothing suspicious there. A mysterious letter came when during the copy image in the copying machine was some hair or thread. Yes, we flew to the moon in the days when treated with the photo copy machine. A detailed analysis of the image can be viewed here.
9. Returning astronauts move too vigorously
The argument of conspiracy: American astronauts too cheerful. when our CosmonautReturning from the International Space Station, is removed from the capsule of the spacecraft "Soyuz", they could hardly walk. And they go down the ladder and fun go to the quarantine center.
What really: expedition to the ISS last for six months or longer. The record belongs to our cosmonaut Gennady Padalka - 878 days in orbit. A flight of "Apollo-11" lasted 12 days.
In addition, they are not so initially were brisk. From the capsule "Apollo" they had to take out the squad divers. But Armstrong and did so weak that he could not close the hatch.
10. Stanley Kubrick throughout admitted
The argument of conspiracy: lunar flights - fiction. This admitted himself Stanley Kubrick, The director who filmed "landing", "Apollo" in the pavilion of Hollywood. This interview has emerged 15 years after the director's death - not to hide the truth!
What really: Yes, it does have an interview with the web, it is walking on the internet since at least August 2015. That's just in the video was captured not Kubrick. On the site you can read Snopes.com denial This fakes.
video creator T. Patrick Murray argued that it has recorded an exclusive interview in May 1999. Impressive, especially when you consider that Kubrick died in March - a few months before. In addition, the widow of the director in an interview with Gawker site He statedThat this movie - a fake.
And a couple of arguments
If you still have doubts about the landing on the moon, just know this:
- On Earth, there are samples of lunar soil. For the six missions to the Moon "Apollo" was brought to Earth 382 kilograms lunar soil. The main part of it is stored in the Lunar Samples Laboratory, at the Johnson Space Center. But the lunar soil samples passedWHERE TODAY ARE THE APOLLO 17 GOODWILL MOON ROCKS and various research organizations worldwide.
- Traces of landings on the moon can be seen from orbit. LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter NASA) photographedLunar Reconnaissance Orbiter landing sites expeditions "Apollo". On these pictures noticeable landers left on the surface, and traces of lunar rovers. View pictures can be here and here. And yet the landing astronauts sawJapanese SELENE (Kaguya) Lunar Mission Spots Apollo 15 Landing Site Japanese machine SELENE.
- On the Moon, the astronauts left corner reflectors. Astronauts programs "Apollo 11," "Apollo 14" and "Apollo 15" left on the Earth's surface of the satellite's such piecesThrough which runs the lunar laser ranging. Thanks to them, we know the exact distance to it.
- Soviet and Russian Cosmonauts confirm the reality of moon landings. For example, cosmonauts Alexei Leonov, Georgy Grechko, Gennady Padalka not call into question the flights of "Apollo." About the reality of this in their writing diaries and the head of the preparation of the first Soviet cosmonauts Nikolai Kamanin. Hardly insidious NASA It has managed to bribe or intimidate so many people.
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